Bronchiectasis and CF Flashcards Preview

*Medicine: Respiratory > Bronchiectasis and CF > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bronchiectasis and CF Deck (8)
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1

What is bronchiectasis?

  • Permanent dilatation of the airways
  • Secondary to chronic infection or inflammation
  • Wide variety of causes

2

What are congenital causes of bronchiectasis?

  • Cystic fibrosis → most common
  • Kartagener's syndrome
  • Young's syndrome

3

What are post-infective causes of bronchiectasis?

  • Measles
  • Pertussis
  • TB
  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchiolitis

Other causes → UC / RA / bronchial obstruction 

4

What are the clinical features of bronchiectasis?

  • Persistent cough
  • Copioid purulent sputum
  • Intermittent haemoptysis
  • Signs → clubbing / coarse insp creps / wheeze

5

What are complications of bronchiectasis?

  • Pneumonia
  • Pleural effusion
  • Pneumothorax
  • Amyloidosis

6

What may sputum culture show for bronchiectasis?

  • Single or multiple pathogens present
  • Most common (25%) = gram-negative → pseudomonas aeruginosa 

7

What other investigations are done for bronchiectasis?

  • CXR → cystic shadows / thickened bronchial walls
  • CT → extent + distribution / dilated bronchus wider than accompanying pulm artery + resemble signet ring
  • Spirometry → obstructive pattern
  • Bronchoscopy → site of haemoptysis / exclude obstruction / obtain culture samples
  • Other tests → serum Igs / CF sweat test / Aspergillus preceiptans or skin-prick test RAST + total IgE

8

What is the management of bronchiectasis?

  • Airway clearance → chest physio / flutter valve 
  • ABx → known pseudomonas: oral ciprofloxacin or suitable IV abx
  • Bronchodilators → useful in asthma, COPD, CF, ABPA
  • Corticosteroids → prednisolone and itraconazole for ABPA
  • Surgery → indicated in localised disease or to control severe haemoptysis