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Flashcards in BRS - Peds Deck (90)
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what are causes pf acquired microcephaly?

perinatal asphyxia, IVH, craniosynostosis, late prenatal/perinatal infxn


what are the causes of congenital microcephaly?

TORCH (toxo, other-syph, Rubella, cmv, hsv) T1, drugs or tox in utero, chromosome abnormalities, congenital


which children are at risk for lead poisoning and which homes increase risk?

less than 6 yo, homes before 1978


what increases risk for dental caries in babies?

areas of low fluoride or sleeping while nursing with non-water products


what do most kids with lead intoxication present with?



what is the age range for delayed eruption of teeth?

after 16 months


What is Kernicterus?

Hyperbilirubinemia --> induces brain damage


At what age is it appropriate to see preference of hand use? What if onset is earlier?

Unusual to see preference before 18 months. If early hand preference may indicate weak/spastic upper extremity


What are behaviors that are similar in autism and Asperger's? What can help distinguish the two?

1. Social isolation
2. repetitive behaviors (flapping, waving)
--> in asperger's there is no significant language delay


When should apnea be more formally assessed in children?

Breath holding spells associated with exercise and physical activity--> require echo/ekg


What can potentially distinguish a 10 month old from 12 mo old child?

10 mo may only be able to say mama or dada, whereas 12 mo can say up to 3 words.


What is metrorrhagia and menometrorrhagia?

Metro - menses at irregular intervals
Menometro - heavy menses at irregular intervals


What are indications for doing a pelvic exam in females?

1. Bleeding that is associated with pain, is prolonged or associated with anemia.
2. Sexually active
3. Age >18


What are indications for hospitalization in patients with PID?

-Situations where compliance may be problematic: homeless, runaway, unstable home environment, drug abuse etc.
-Pregnant teens
-Adnexal mass (tuboovarian abscess)
-Failure of outpatient management


What are the physical and growth characteristics of patients with anorexia?

-weight 15% below ideal
-delays in puberty and growth


What causes chancroid genital ulcers and how do they appear?

Haemophilus Ducreyi - painful ulcers, irregular borders and purulent base


How do HSV1/2 ulcers appear?

Multiple painful shallow ulcers, nonpurulent base


What are the main presenting signs of galactosemia? What are these patients vulnerable to?

1. Hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly (vomit/diarreha after milk)
2. E. coli sepsis, may die in early infancy


What are the main presenting features of Gaucher's disease?

Neurodegeneration, splenomegaly, bony changes (erlenmeyer flask shaped distal femur)


What is the difference between breastfeeding vs. breastmilk jaundice?

Breast feeding = first week of life, not enough PO intake
Breast milk = after first week, from lipases and beta-glucorinadase


What are the main differences between omphalocele vs. gastroschisis?

1. Omphalocele has greater association with congenital defects and genetic abnormalities (trisomy 13, and 18) and is covered by peritoneum tissue and exudes from central abdominal ring (gastro is lateral abdominal wall)


What is one of the most common causes of persistent pulm HTN of newborn? Which kids get it most?

Perinatal asphyxia or Meconium aspiration syndrome --> very high PVR --> significant R to L shunting from PFO or PDA

Equal prevalence in all newborns


When does benign physiologic indirect hyperBRinemia peak in newborns?

FT - day 3-4 of life
Pre-term - day 5-7


What is the difference in 100% O2 therapy between congenital heart conditions like TOF vs. truncus arteriosis? Primary respiratory illness?

TOF has low pulm flow -> small rise
Truncus has high flow -> modest rise
Respiratory has normal flow but no heart defects -> very large rise >150mmHg


What are the main presenting signs of galactosemia?

Hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly (vomit/diarreha after milkl)


What are the main presenting features of Gaucher's disease?

Neurodegeneration, splenomegaly, bony changes (erlenmeyer flask shaped distal femur)


What are the presenting features of Hurler disease?

Developmental delay, coarse facies, corneal clouding, and dysostosis multiplex


What are the main principles involved in the acute management of inborn errors of metabolism?

1. Supply source of energy that can be utilized
2. remove toxic metabolites
3. prevent continued exposure to offending substance


What should be provided initially to aid in excess ammonia excretion?

Sodium benzoate


What genetic disorder has a similar presentation to Marfan syndrome, and how do they differ?

Homocystinuria - marfanoid body w/o arachnodactyly, downward lens subluxation (vs. upward in Marf), MR or AR (Ao dilation in Marf); development delay and retard (NOT present in Marf)
-Decreased upper to lower segment ratio in both