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Flashcards in BSci Definitions Deck (104):
1

Secobarbital intoxication

Barbituate derivative drug that possesses anesthetic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative and hypnotic properties. Symptoms of oral overdose may occur within 15 minutes and begin with central nervous system depression, underventilation, hypotension, and hypothermia, which may progress to pulmonary edema and death. Hemorrhagic blisters may develop, especially at pressure points.

2

Sundowning

Drowsiness, confusion, ataxia, and falling as the result of being overly sedated with medications, happens in elderly and at night.

3

Alcohol withdrawal

A set of symptoms that can occur when an individual reduces or stops alcoholic consumption after long periods of use. The withdrawal syndrome is largely a hyper-excitable response of the CNS to lack of alcohol. Symptoms typical of withdrawal include agitation, seizures, and delirium tremens.

4

PCP intoxication

known colloquially as Angel Dust. Works primarily as a NMDA receptor antagonist. Low doses produce a numbness in the extremities and intoxication, characterized by staggering, unsteady gait, slurred speech, bloodshot eyes, and loss of balance. Moderate doses will produce analgesia and anesthesia. High disease may lead to convulsions.

5

Methamphetamine intoxication

Methamphetamine is often used recreationally for its effects as a potent euphoriant and stimulant as well as aphrodisiac qualities. The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is very often severe, with marked hypersomnia.

6

Blockade of the dopamine transporter

Achieved through the use of a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Reuptake inhibition is achieved when extracellular dopamine is not absorbed by the postsynaptic neuron is blocked from re-entering the presynaptic neuron. This, in turn, leads to increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine and therefore an increase in dopaminergic neurotransmission.

7

Ketamine intoxication

At subanesthetic doses, ketamine produces a dissociative state, characterized by a sense of detachment from oneÕs physical body and the external world which is known as depersonalization and derealization. At sufficiently high doses, users may experience what is called the ÒK-hole,Ó a state of extreme dissociation with visual and auditory hallucinations.

8

Opiate withdrawal

Refers to the wide range of symptoms that occur after stopping or dramatically reducing opiate drugs after heavy and prolonged use. Opiate drugs include heroin, morphine, codeine, Oxycontin, Dilaudid, methadone, and others.

9

Conduct disorder

Diagnosed in childhood or adolescence that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.

10

Tic disorder

Tics are sudden twitches, movements, or sounds that people do repeatedly. People who have tics cannot stop their body from doing these things. There are three tic disorders included in the DSM-5: TouretteÕs disorder; persistent motor or vocal tic disorder; and provisional tic disorder.

11

Prader-Willi Syndrome

Rare genetic disorder in which seven genes on chromosome 15 are deleted or unexpressed on the paternal chromosome. Characteristics of PWS is low muscle tone, short stature, incomplete sexual development, cognitive disabilities, problem behaviors, and a chronic feeling of hunger that can lead to excessive eating and life-threatening obesity

12

Temporal Lobe Seizure

Originate in the temporal lobe which process emotions and are important for short-term memory. Some symptoms of a temporal lobe seizure may be related to these functions, including having odd feelings Ð such as euphoria, dŽjˆ vu, or fear.

13

Stage III/IV sleep

This stage is called slow-wave sleep. SWS is initiated in the preoptic area and consists of delta activity, high amplitude waves at less than 3.5Hz. The sleeper is less responsive to the environment, many environmental stimuli no longer produce any reactions.

14

REM

Rapid eye movement sleep. Stage of sleep characterized by the rapid and random movement of the eyes. Classified into two categories: tonic and phasic. Criteria for REM sleep includes rapid eye movement, low muscle tone, and a rapid, low-voltage EEG.

15

Polysomnography

a comprehensive recording of the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. The PSG monitors many body functions including brain, eye movements, muscle activity or skeletal muscle activation, and heart rhythm during sleep.

16

Cataplexy

Temporary loss of muscle tone and weakness precipitated by a variety of emotional states (as in narcolepsy).

17

Imipramine

Tricyclic antidepressant. Mainly used in the treatment of major depression and enuresis

18

Dopamine antagonists

A drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism. There are five known types of dopamine receptors in the human body; they are found in the brain, peripheral nervous system, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and the kidney.

19

Lithium carbonate

Used to treat manic depressive disorder (Bipolar disorder). It works to stabilize the mood and reduce extremities in behavior by restoring the balance of certain natural substances in the brain

20

Jakob-Creutzfeldt Disorder

A rare, degenerative, invariably fatal brain disorder. Usually appears in later life and runs a rapid course. In the early stages of disease, people may have failing memory, behavioral changes, lack of coordination and visual disturbances. As the illness progresses, mental deterioration becomes pronounced and involuntary movements, blindness, weakness of extremities, and coma may occur

21

Barbiturate abuse

In small doses, the person who abuses barbiturates feels drowsy, disinhibited, and intoxicated. In higher doses, the user staggers as if drunk, develops slurred speech, and is confused. At even higher doses, the person is unable to be aroused (coma) and may stop breathing. Death is possible

22

Alcohol abuse

Substance abuse experts make a distinction between alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Unlike alcoholics, alcohol abusers have some ability to set limits on their drinking. Common signs of alcohol abuse include repeatedly neglecting your responsibilities at home, work or school; using alcohol in situations where itÕs physically dangerous; experiencing repeated legal problems on account of your drinking; continuing to drink even though your alcohol use is causing problems in your relationships; and drinking as a way to relax or de-stress.

23

Depressive psychosis

a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms. Individuals with psychotic depression experience the symptoms of a major depressive episode, along with one or more psychotic symptoms, including delusions and/or hallucinations. Delusions can be classified as mood congruent or incongruent, depending on whether or not the nature of the delusions is in keeping with the individualÕs mood state. Hallucinations can be auditory, visual, olfactory, or haptic. Severe anhedonia, loss of interest, and psychomotor retardation are typically present

24

Histrionic personality disorder

Characterized by a long-standing pattern of attention seeking behavior and extreme emotionality. Someone with histrionic personality disorder wants to be the center of attention in any group of people, and feel uncomfortable when they are not.

25

Anxiety state

The presence of anxiety in a situation or to a degree where it becomes maladaptive. Simple states are agoraphobia, a fear of crowds, claustrophobia, fear of enclosed spaces, and stage fright.

26

Panic disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by recurring panic attacks, causing a series of intense episodes of extreme anxiety during panic attacks. It may also include significant behavioral changes lasting at least a month and of ongoing worry about the implications or concern about having other attacks.

27

Avoidant personality

People with avoidant personality disorder experience long-standing feelings of inadequacy and are extremely sensitive to what others think about them. These feelings of inadequacy leads to the person to be socially inhibited and feel socially inept. Because of these feelings of inadequacy and inhibition, the person with avoidant personality disorder will seek to avoid work, school and any activities that involve socializing or interacting with others.

28

Borderline personality

A cluster-B personality disorder, the essential feature of which is a pattern of marked impulsivity and instability of affects, interpersonal relationships and self-image. The pattern is present by early adulthood and occurs across a variety of situations and contexts.

29

Schizotypal personality

Characterized by someone who has great difficulty in establishing and maintaining close relationships with others. This person may have extreme discomfort with such relationships, and therefore have less of a capacity for them. Someone with this disorder usually has cognitive or perceptual distortions as well as eccentricities in their everyday behavior.

30

NEC/NOS

NEC: not elsewhere classified and NOS: not otherwise specified. Used only when neither the diagnostic statement nor a thorough review of the medical record provides adequate information to permit assignment of a more specific code.

31

Hallucinogen abuse

Hallucinogens, or psychedelics, are drugs that affect a personÕs perceptions, sensations, thinking, self-awareness, and emotions by disrupting normal functioning of the serotonin system. Hallucinogens include such drugs as LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, MDMA (ecstasy), and DMT.

32

Gonococcal infection

Gonorrhea is a STI caused by the bacteria N. gonorrhoeae. It typically infects the urethra, rectum, or cervix. Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported bacterial STD

33

Factitious illness

a condition in which a person acts as if they have an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms. Factitious disorder by proxy is a condition in which a person deliberately produces, feigns, or exaggerates symptoms in a person in their care.

34

Reactive psychosis

The psychiatric term for psychosis which can be triggered by an extremely stressful event in the life of an individual. Typically such brief psychoses last from a day to a month only, with the delusions, speech disorders and hallucinations eventually yielding to a return to normal functioning.

35

AC schizophrenia-unspecified

If the symptoms of schizophrenia appear but they do not match-up with any of the major types of schizophrenia that are generally recognized, it is commonly referred to as unspecified.

36

Panic disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by recurring panic attacks, causing a series of intense episodes of extreme anxiety during panic attacks. It may also include significant behavioral changes lasting at least a month and of ongoing worry about the implications or concern about having other attacks.

37

Gilles Tourette disorder

A condition that causes a person to make repeated, quick movements or sounds that they cannot control. Symptoms of Tourette syndrome can range from tiny, minor movements to constant movements and sounds that cannot be controlled. Different types of tics can include: arm thrusting, eye blinking, jumping, kicking, repeated throat clearing or sniffing, and shoulder shrugging.

38

Hyperkinetic syndrome

a childhood or adolescent disorder characterized by excessive activity, emotional instability, significantly reduced attention span, and an absence of shyness and fear, and that occasionally develops in individuals with brain injury, metal defect, or epilepsy.

39

Partial epilepsy

Seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain. Symptoms will vary according to where the seizure occurs. In the frontal lobe symptoms may include a wave-like sensation in the head; in the temporal lobe, a feeling of dŽjˆ vu; in the parietal lobe, a numbness or tingling; and in the occipital lobe, visual disturbance or hallucination.

40

Otitis media

A group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear. An infection of abrupt onset that usually presents with ear pain. In young children this may result in pulling at the ear, increased crying, and poor sleep.

41

Biliary cirrhosis

an autoimmune disease of the liver, characterized by the slow progressive destruction of the small bile ducts in the liver, with the intralobular ducts affected early in the disease. Damage to the ducts cases bile to build up in the liver (cholestasis), and over time damages the tissue leading to scarring, fibrosis, and cirrhosis.

42

Cataplexy and narcolepsy

Cataplexy is a sudden transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, terror, etc. It is the cardinal symptom of narcolepsy and is caused by autoimmune destruction of the neurotransmitter hypocretin, which regulates arousal and wakefulness. Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the loss of the brainÕs ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally

43

Bulimia

A serious eating disorder marked by binging, followed by methods to avoid weight gain, such as vomiting, excessive exercise, or laxatives.

44

Anorexia Nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by food restriction, inappropriate eating habits or rituals, obsession with having a thin figure, and an irrational fear of weight gain. It is accompanied by a distorted body image, and typically involves excessive weight loss.

45

Somnambulism/night terror

Also known as sleep walking, is a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family. Sleepwalkers arise from the slow wave sleep stage in a state of low consciousness and perform activities that re usually performed during a state of full consciousness. These activities can include sitting up in bed, walking to the bathroom, cleaning, cooking, driving, and violent gestures, grabbing at hallucinated objects or even homicide. Night terror is a parasomnia or sleep disorder, causing feelings of terror or dread, and typically occurs during the first hours of stage 3-4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Night terrors tend to happen during periods of arousal from delta sleep, also known as slow-wave sleep. During the first half of a sleep cycle, delta sleep occurs most often, which indicates that people with more delta sleep activity are more prone to night terrors. However, they can also occur during daytime naps.

46

Polydipsia

Excessive thirst. A nonspecific symptom in various medical disorders. Psychogenic polydipsia is an excessive water intake seen in some patients with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, and/or the developmentally disabled. It should be taken very seriously, as the amount of water ingested exceeds the amount that can be excretedby the kidneys, and can on rare occasions be life-threatening as the body's serum sodium level is diluted to an extent that seizures and cardiac arrest can occur.

47

Tuberous sclerosis

a rare multi-system genetic disease that causes benign tumors to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin. A combination of symptoms may include seizures, intellectual disability, developmental delay, behavioral problems, skin abnormalities, lung and kidney disease. TS is caused by a mutation of either of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2, which code for the proteins hamartin and tuberin respectively. These proteins act as tumor growth suppressors, agents that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation

48

Serotonin uptake inhibitors

a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT). This in turn leads to increased extracellular concentrations of serotonin and, therefore, an increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. SRIs can be either selective or nonselective in their action. SRIs are used predominantly as antidepressants (e.g., SSRIs, SNRIs, and TCAs), though they are also commonly used in the treatment of other psychological conditions such as anxiety disorders and eating disorders. Less often, SRIs are also used to treat a variety of other medical conditions including neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia (e.g., duloxetine, milnacipran), and premature ejaculation (e.g., dapoxetine) as well as for dieting (e.g., sibutramine).

49

Aphasia

language disorders caused by damage to the brain. Four categories exist: expressive (knowing what you want to say but having trouble saying or writing it), receptive (hearing a voice or seeing print but not being able to make sense of the words), anomic (having trouble using the correct words for objects, places or events) and global (inability to speak, understand speech, read or write).

50

Sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or instances of shallow or infrequent breathing during sleep. Each pause in breathing, called an apnea, can last for several seconds to several minutes, and may occur 5 to 30 times or more in an hour. When breathing is paused, carbon dioxide builds up in the bloodstream. Chemoreceptors in the blood stream note the high carbon dioxide levels. The brain is signaled to wake the person sleeping and breathe in air. Breathing normally will restore oxygen levels and the person will fall asleep again

51

Osteoporosis

a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density which can lead to an increased risk of fracture.

52

Insomnia NEC

Insomnia is a symptom of a sleeping disorder characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite the opportunity. It is typically followed by functional impairment while awake. NEC denotes organic insomnia.

53

Paroxysmal disorders

One in which signs or symptoms develop suddenly. Paroxysms result in spasms, convulsions, or other abrupt onset of physical dysfunction.

54

Nervous system congenital disorder

Present at birth. May be inherited, others may be caused by environmental factors, while many have an unknown cause. Forebrain disorders primarily result in clinical signs such as visual disturbances, changes in mental status or behavior, abnormal movements or postures, and seizures. Cerebellar disorders usually result in an intention tremor, wide-based stance, and incoordination of the head, trunk, and limbs. Brain stem disorders may result in cranial nerve dysfunction, postural disturbances, or vestibular dysfunction.

55

Nervous system repair/regulation

Refers to regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells, or cell products.

56

Analgesics

refers to a group of drugs that provide relief from pain. They act in various was on the peripheral and central nervous systems

57

Mood disorders

group of diagnoses where a disturbance in the personÕs mood is hypothesized to be the main underlying feature. Mood disorders fall into the basic groups of elevated mood such as mania or hypomania, depressed mood of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder, and moods which cycle between mania and depression known as bipolar disorder

58

Antidepressant therapy

The most important classes of antidepressants are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

59

Anxiolytic treatment

medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

60

Alternative diets, food fads

diet programs based on the belief that an individual can improve his/her health by eating or avoiding certain foods. While some are used therapeutically for certain illnesses, others are used simply to stay healthy. Some examples include the Pritikin diet (for heart disease), the macrobiotic diet (for cancer), and the orthomolecular diet (atherosclerosis, schizophrenia, and depression)

61

Dementia, Alzheimer type

dementia is a group of thinking and social symptoms that interferes with daily functioning. This disorder affects 5% of the population that is older than 65 and 20% of those older than 80. 15% of dementias are reversible. Produces diffuse atrophy of the brain on CT or MRI (i.e., flattened cortical sulci, enlarged cerebral ventricles).

62

Amnestic disorder

group of disorders that involve loss of memories previously established, loss of the ability to learn new information, or loss of the ability to create new memories. These disorders result from two basic causes: general medical conditions that produce memory disturbances and exposure to a chemical.

63

Hepatic encephalopathy

confusion, altered level of consciousness, and coma brought on due to liver failure. It results from the accumulation of toxic substances in the blood that are normally removed by the liver. It may ultimately lead to death

64

Multi-infarct/vascular dementia

second most common dementia after AlzheimerÕs. It is caused by a series of small strokes. Risk factors include diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis.

65

Hyperthyroidism

condition in which the thyroid gland produces and secretes excessive amounts of free thyroid hormones. GravesÕ disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.

66

Malignant hyperthermia

potentially fatal disorder that is associated with the administration of certain general anesthetics and/or the drug succinylcholine. It is due to an acceleration of metabolism in skeletal muscle. Signs of this disorder include muscle rigidity, rapid heart rate, high body temperature, muscle breakdown, and increased acid content. Immediate treatment with dantrolene usually reverses the signs of MH

67

Hypertensive encephalopathy

neurological dysfunction induced by malignant hypertension. It refers to cerebral conditions that are typically reversible but that are caused by sudden and sustained elevations in blood pressure. It occurs in eclampsia, acute nephritis and crises in essential hypertension.

68

Neurosyphilis

An infection of the brain or spinal cord caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. It usually occurs in people who have had chronic, untreated syphilis, usually about 10 to 20 years after first infection. Symptoms of neurosyphilis include but are not limited to abnormal gait, blindness, confusion, disorientation, sudden personality changes, dementia, and incontinence.

69

y-Hydroxybutyric acid

naturally occurring substance in the CNS; usually an inhibitory neurotransmitter. It has also been used in medical settings as an anesthetic to treat insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism

70

Piloerection

Involuntary erection or bristling of hairs due to a sympathetic reflex usually triggered by cold, shock, or fright or due to a sympathomimetic agent. Known as Ògoose bumps.Ó

71

Increased carbon dioxide in blood

referred to as hypercapnia or acidosis, causing tachycardia, seizures, coma, respiratory arrest, and death. This occurs in patients COPD and respiratory failure.

72

Schizophreniform disorder

A mental disorder diagnosed when symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant portion of time within a one-month period, but signs of disruption are not present for the full six months required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. The symptoms of both disorders can include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and social withdrawal. An individualÕs level of functioning may or may not be affected

73

Physical abuse

an act of a person involving contact of another person intended to cause feelings of physical pain, injury, or other physical suffering or bodily harm

74

Sexual abuse

The involvement of children and adolescents in sexual activity they do not understand and cannot give informed consent and performed by a caretaker.

75

Adjustment disorder

Occurs when an individual is unable to adjust to or cope with a particular stressor, like a major life event. Since people with this disorder normally have symptoms that depressed people do, such as general loss of interest, feelings of hopelessness and crying, this disorder is sometimes known as situational depression.

76

Hallucinogen abuse

Hallucinogens, or psychedelics, are drugs that affect a personÕs perceptions, sensations, thinking, self-awareness, and emotions by disrupting normal functioning of the serotonin system. Hallucinogens include such drugs as LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, MDMA (ecstasy), and DMT

77

Premenstrual tension

Used to cover a range of symptoms experienced by some women for up to two weeks before their monthly period. The symptoms of PMT cause varying degrees of discomfort, but are largely harmless, and may be physical and/or psychological. Physical symptoms include: food and alcohol cravings, headaches, skin problems, swollen joints, particularly ankles, water retention, weakness, and weight gain. Psychological symptoms include decreased sex drive, depression, insomnia, irritability, poor concentration, and weepiness.

78

Insomnia NEC

Insomnia is a symptom of a sleeping disorder characterized by persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep despite the opportunity. It is typically followed by functional impairment while awake. NEC denotes organic insomnia.

79

Dopamine antagonist

A drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism. There are five known types of dopamine receptors in the human body; they are found in the brain, peripheral nervous system, blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, and the kidney.

80

Venlafaxine

An antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor class. It increases the concentrations of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the body and the brain. It is used for the treatment of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia.

81

Isotretinoin

Medication primarily used to treat severe acne (Accutane)

82

Clonazepam

A benzodiazepine drug having anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, amnestic, sedative, and hypnotic properties. Usually prescribed for epilepsy

83

Lorazepam

A benzodiazepine that is used to treat anxiety disorders.

84

Hydrocodone

A semi-synthetic opioid synthesized from codeine. It is a narcotic analgesic used orally as an antitussive/cough suppressant, but also commonly taken orally for relief of moderate to severe pain.

85

Kubler-RossÕs 5 stages of grief

A series of emotional stages experienced by survivors of an intimateÕs death, wherein the five stages are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.

86

EriksonÕs stages of development

Basic trust vs. mistrust (0-2 years), Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt (2-4 years), Initiative vs. Guilt (4-5 years), Industry vs. Inferiority (5-12 years), Identity vs. Role confusion (13-19 years), Intimacy vs. Isolation (20-39), Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-64 years), Integrity vs. Despair (65-death).

87

Identity development

The development of the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity in a particular stage of life in which individual characteristics are possessed and by which a person is recognized or known. According to EricksonÕs stage, it is ÒIdentity vs. Role confusion(13-19 years). In this stage, the adolescents are trying to figure out who they are in order to form a basic identity that they will build on throughout their life, especially concerning social and occupational identities.

88

FreudÕs stages of psychosexual development

Each stage represents the fixation of libido on a different area of the body. As a person grows physically certain areas of their body become important as sources of potential frustration, pleasure or both. The stages are oral, anal, phallic, latent, and genital.

89

Ego defense mechanisms

A defense mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses. They are unconscious and not to be confused with coping strategies

90

Mature defenses

These defenses are commonly found among emotionally healthy adults and are considered mature, even though many have their origins in an immature stage of development. The use of these defenses enhances pleasure and feelings of control. They include: respect, moderation, patience, courage, humility, mindfulness, acceptance, gratitude, altruism, tolerance, mercy, forgiveness, anticipation, humor, identification, introjection, sublimation, suppression, emotional self-regulation, and emotional self-sufficiency

91

Neurotic defenses

Such defenses have short-term advantages in coping, but can often cause long-term problems in relationships, work and in enjoying life when used as oneÕs primary style of coping with the world. They include: displacement, dissociation, hypochondriasis, intellectualization, isolation, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, undoing, withdrawal, upward and downward social comparisons.

92

Assimilation, accommodation, adaptations

Assimilation and accommodation are the two complementary processes of Adaptation described by Piaget through which awareness of the outside world is internalized. Assimilation is how humans perceive and adapt to new information. Accommodation is a process of taking new information in oneÕs environment and altering pre-existing schemas in order to fit in the new information.

93

PiagetÕs stages of cognitive development

A comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. The theory of intellectual development focuses on perception, adaptation and manipulation of the environment around them. There are four distinct stages: the sensorimotor stage, from birth to age 2; the preoperational stage, from age 2 to about age 7; the concrete operational stage, from age 7 to 11; and the formal operational stage, which begins in adolescence and spans into adulthood.

94

Denver Developmental Test

A test for screening cognitive and behavioral problems in preschool children. The scale reflects what percentage of a certain age group is able to perform a certain task. Tasks are grouped into four categories (social contact, fine motor skill, language, and gross motor skill).

95

Apgar Scoring System

Method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn children immediately after birth. The Apgar scale is determined by evaluating the newborn baby on five simply criteria on a scale from 0 to 2, then summing up the five values thus obtained. The resulting Apgar score ranges from 0 to 10. The five criteria are Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration.

96

Hypothyroidism

Endocrine disorder in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as tiredness, poor ability to tolerate cold, and weight gain. The diagnosis can be confirmed with blood tests measuring TSH and thyroxine levels.

97

Cushing syndrome

A condition that occurs from exposure to high cortisol levels for a long time. Symptoms include rapid weight gain, particularly of the trunk and face with sparing of the limbs (central obesity). Common signs include the growth of fat pads along the collarbone, on the back of the neck or Òbuffalo hump,Ó and moon facies.

98

TurnerÕs syndrome

45,X phenotypic females. Syndrome commonly manifests as short stature, swelling, broad chest, low hairline, low-set ears, and webbed necks.

99

Lawrence-Moon-Biedl

rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder associated with retinitis pigmentosa, extra digits, spastic paraplegia, hypogonadism, and mental retardation.

100

Klinefelter syndrome

Genetic disorder resulting in karyotype of 47, XXY or XXY. Characterized by testicular atrophy, eunuchoid body shape, tall, long extremities, gynecomastia, and female hair distribution. May present with developmental delay. An inactivated X chromosome (Barr body) is present.

101

Autism Spectrum Disorder

ASD is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts; restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning.

102

Benzodiazepines

A class of psychoactive drugs. Enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA at the GABAA receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties

103

Sertraline

An antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. Primarily prescribed for major depressive disorder in adult outpatients as well as obsessive-compulsive, panic, and social anxiety disorders in both adults and children.

104

Epidural hematoma

A type of traumatic brain injury in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura mater and the skull. Often due to trauma, the condition is potentially deadly because the buildup of blood may increase pressure in the intracranial space, compress the delicate brain tissue, and cause brain shift.