Flashcards in BSCM - 5 - Capacity Management and Production Activity Control Deck (39):
Name the 4 basic scheduling and loading techniques.
1. FORWARD SCHEDULING
2. BACKWARD SCHEDULING
3. INFINITE LOADING
4. FINITE LOADING
Activities are scheduled from a known start date through the finish date.
Activities are scheduled back from the due date.
Assumes that capacity is infinite at any work center.
Assumes that there is a definite limit to capacity at any work center.
-Involves establishing start and finish dates for each operation needed to complete an order.
-Meet delivery dates
-Effectively use manufacturing resources.
A facility, function, department, or resource whose capacity is less than the demand placed on it.
Throughput can be constrained by __________ operations in intermittent, flow, and project manufacturing processes.
The ______________ volume of a system during a specified time period is constrained by the bottleneck work center.
Between the release of materials to the gateway operation and receipt of WIP at the bottleneck is equal to the MFG lead time plus some safety time. The latter is meant to allow a bank of WIP to accumulate at the bottleneck to ensure that the bottleneck will never be short of work.
Communicates the schedule of raw material releases to the gateway operation; this establishes a flow of materials to the bottleneck that ensures the bottleneck will never be short of work.
Should produce at the rate of the bottleneck as well--generally neither faster nor slower.
WORKCENTERS AFTER THE BOTTLENECK
What are the PRIORITY CONTROL DISPATCHING RULES?
-First come, first served
-Earliest Job Due Date
-Earliest Operation Due Date
-Shortest process time
= time remaining / work remaining
-Also called LEAD TIME REMAINING
-If this is less than 1.0, the order will be late
**The lower the CR, the later the order, and the higher its priority.
CRITICAL RATIO (CR)
-Method used when material flow is based on a set production rate in a continuous MFG system.
-Characterized by uninterrupted production runs, fixed routings, committed production lines (capacity)
-In lean, the rate of __________ is controlled by:
-rate of customer demand (takt time)
-Kanban signals that trigger pull from upstream workstations
-control of WIP levels by resource balancing among workstations
-2nd check on availability of critical resources
-Validates resource availability for the MPS
-Based on the quantity of a resource required to make one unit of the specific models or types of end items in a product family.
RCCP - ROUGH CUT CAPACITY PLANNING
OTHER USES BESIDES MFG:
-Finance and Accounting
-Customer Service & Sales
PRODUCTION TRACKING & REPORTING
Begins once the shop order has been released and operations begin:
-Establish and maintain priority: Rank shop orders in a dispatch list to establish priority.
-Monitor and control WIP, lead times, and queues.
-Track and report production status and completion. Compare work orders vs. the plan and make adjustments.
-Report work center performance:
EXECUTE THE PLAN:
-->SHOP ORDER PACKET
-Order number, part number, name and description, and quantity
-Material Issue Tickets
-Job tickets and more tickets
-Item Master File
-Product Structure File
-Work Center File
-Shop Order File
INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS (PAC) SOURCES
What are the objectives of Production Activity Control (PAC)? (4)
-Execute the MPS and MRP.
-Optimize use of resources
-Minimize Work In Process (WIP)
-Maintain Customer Service
-Monitors and evaluates its progress and makes adjustments as necessary.
Involves getting ready to release the shop order to the shop floor:
-Ensure resources are available.
-->materials, tooling, workers, and info
-Schedule start and completion dates
-After completing the implementation and the control cycle, if adjustments are necessary, a replanning process will occur.
-Includes activities leading up to and including the release of shop orders.
-Gather necessary information from various sources to prepare a SHOP PACKET, including the shop order and instructions for operators.
-Release shop orders to manufacturing to proceed with operations.
-2nd step of simplified CRP Model
-Graphic comparison of each work center's available capacity and the load established by the planned and released orders for each time period of the plan.
ESTABLISHING LOAD PROFILES
Provide a summary of the Simplified CRP PROCESS.
1. Scheduling orders simulation.
2. Establishing load profiles.
3. Resolving differences.
-Provides information on the actual number of working days available in each week or month.
KEY INPUTS TO CRP: SHOP CALENDAR
Calculation of total load per period at each work center:
-Obtain component requirements (due dates and quantities) from MRP
-Determine operations time per work order (load) at each work center= # of pieces x run time per piece + set up time.
-Allocate operations time for each work order to appropriate periods at each work center.
-Calculate sum of work order loads/time period at each work center (load profile).
KEY INPUTS TO CRP: LOAD
DESCRIPTION --- SOURCE
Open Shop Orders --- Shop Order File
Planned Order Receipts --- MRP
Where Work is Done --- Routing File
Time Needed (Std Hours) --- Routing File
Lead Times --- Routing or Work Center File
Work Center Capacity --- Work Center File
KEY INPUTS TO CRP: PLANNING DATA
What are the Key Inputs to CRP (CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS PLANNING)?
-Historical records of resource output capacity
-Mathematical average of the resource's past period resource output
= Sum of standard hours for past N periods / N past periods
DEMONSTRATED CAPACITY (Standard Hours)
ELEMENTS (Realistic Approach)
=Available Time x Utilization x Efficiency
RATED CAPACITY (standard hours)
-Standard hours of output
-Hours actually worked
=Standard Hours of Work Produced / Hours Actually Worked x 100%
-The capability of a system to perform its expected function.
-The capability of a worker, machine, work center, plant, or organization to produce output per time period.
-Determine the capacity available.
-Translate the priority plan into capacity required for each time period.
-Sum up capacities for each time period required for each resource in order to compare with capacity available.
-Resolve differences between available capacity and required capacity for each time period.
CAPACITY PLANNING PROCESS
The capability of a system or resource to produce a quantity of output in a particular time period.
PRODUCTION ACTIVITY CONTROL
What are the Phases of Capacity Management?
-CONTROLLING - domain of PAC
-Comparing it with the plan
-Taking corrective action
What are the CAPACITY MANAGEMENT PLANNING LEVELS?
-S & OP --> Resource Planning
-Master Scheduling --> RCCP
-MRP --> CRP
-PAC --> input/output control and operations sequencing