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Flashcards in Building Blocks Of Life Deck (34):
1

Name the 4 building blocks of life

Sugars
Fatty acids
Amino acids
Nucleus acids

2

Which macromolecules do the following 3 subunits form
Sugar
Amino acid
Nucleotide

Polysaccharide
Protein
Nucleus acid

3

What reaction occurs when building a macromolecule? What is formed and what is lost?

Condensation
Covalent bond formed
Water is lost

4

What reaction occurs when breaking down a macromolecule? What is broken and what is consumed?

Hydrolysis
Covalent bond broke
Water consumed

5

What is the simplest sugar called?

Monosaccharides

6

What is the polysaccharide of glucose monomers called?

Glycogen

7

What bonds do monosaccharides link through to form a disaccharide?

Glycosidic

8

What is function 1 of sugar in the body?

Energy (glucose) can be oxidised to carbon dioxide and water - cellular respiration

9

What is function 2 of sugar in the body?

Long term storage. Glycogen in liver and muscles tissue is reserved for glucose for energy production.

10

What is function 3 of sugar in the body?

Cell adherence - glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell membrane help cells to recognise and adhere to each other

11

What are fatty acids

Long chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxyl COOH group at one end

Molecules that are insoluble in water

12

Name and explain two examples of fatty acids

Triglycerides - contains 3 fatty acids linked to glycerol - stored in cells for energy production

Phospholipids- make up membranes that enclose cells within the nucleoli, mitochondria, Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum

13

What are fatty acids

Long chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxyl COOH group at one end

Molecules that are insoluble in water

14

Name and explain two examples of fatty acids

Triglycerides - contains 3 fatty acids linked to glycerol - stored in cells for energy production

Phospholipids- make up membranes that enclose cells within the nucleoli, mitochondria, Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum

15

What is a phospholipid

Lipid bilayer in a cell membrane.

Hydrophilic head face the aqueous environment in and outside the cells. Hydrophilic tails cluster the interior of the bilayer.

16

What is the function or a phospholipid

Forms the bilayer - main component of a cell membrane

Rich energy source

Adipose tissue cushions vital body organs and insulates the body

17

What is the structure of an amino acid and how many are there

Carboxylic group COOH and amino group NH2

20 amino acids

18

What are the bonds called between amino acids which form a polypeptide chain

Peptide bonds

19

What are proteins made up of? And how is the structure stabilised?

Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide chains

It is stabilised by non covalent interactions between the polypeptide backbone and amino acid side chains (hydrogen electrostatic van der waals forces)

20

What is the primary level of a protein?

Linear sequence of amino acids with the polypeptide chain

21

What is the secondary level of a protein?

Primary structure coils to form a structure maintained by hydrogen bonds. Alpha Helix and Beta sheets

22

What is the tertiary level of a protein?

Secondary level structures form a globular structure

23

What is the quaternary level of a protein?

2 or more polypeptides are aggregated e.g hemoglobins with 4 polypeptides

24

What is a nucleotide?

Building blocks of DNA and RNA

25

What is a nucleotide made up of?

5 carbon sugar
Organic nitrogenous base
Phosphate group

R group coming from sugar =OH in RNA and H in DNA

26

What does DNA stand for and what bases are in it?

Deoxyribonucleic acid
AGTC

27

What does RNA stand for and what bases are in it?

Ribonucleic acid
AGCU

28

Describe the structure of DNA

Two strands of nucleic acids which are held together by complementary base pairing AT CG

H bonds between the pairs

Phosphodiester bonds linking nucleotide in DNA backbone (sugar phosphate)

Spiral double stranded helix

29

How many chromosomes do we have?

46- 23 identical pairs
Packed into chromosomes in eukaryotic cells

30

What is a eukaryotic cell

Definition

31

Describe the structure of RNA

Single stranded

Contains ribose sugar - U base instead of T.

Can fold into many shapes to have structural and catalytic functions.

32

Summarise fatty acids

They are a richer form of energy and are important for making membranes

33

Why are the properties and order of amino acids important when making proteins?

This gives the protein it's 3D structure and specific function

34

What do nucleic acids do?

Store and transfer genetic information