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what are the three main routes of metastatic spread of cancer?

- lymphatic
- haematogenous
- transcoelomic


give one examples of a cancer which spreads?

colon cancer metastasises to liver


name 2 clinical classifications of tumours:

- benign
- malignant


name two histological classifications of tumours:

- epithelial
- mesenchyme


what are 5 features of benign tumours?

1. growth is slow
2. growth is non-invasive
3. benign tumours do not spread
4. do not recur when removed
5. tumour margins are not well defined


name 5 features of malignant tumours:

1. growth is rapid
2. growth is invasive (destroys tissue)
3. tumour spreads
4. recurrence after excision
5. tumour margins are well defined


name two benign tumours are their tissue of origin:

- lipoma = fat tissue
- chondroma = cartilage


name two malignant tumours and their tissue of origin:

- carcinoma = epithelial cells
- lymphoma = bone marrow/blood forming cell


name 4 demographic factors (characteristics of a population, expressed statistically):

- Age
- Sex/gender
- employment status
- postcode


briefly describe the Ingestion phase of feeding:

- movement of food from external environment to internal environment
- accomplished by biting and oral seal


briefly describe stage on of transport in the feeding cycle:

food is gathered on tongue tip and moved to the level of the posterior teeth


briefly describe the mechanical processing phase of the feeding cycle:

- solid foods are broken down and mixed with saliva before swallowing
- moist solid foods need to have fluid removed before transport & swallowing
- food is chewed with premolars and molars
- soft foods are squashed against the hard palate


what occurs in stage two of transport during feeding?

- bolus moved posteriorly by ‘squeeze back’ mechanism
- solid foods moved through fauces to pharyngeal surface of tongue
- ‘seal’ holds liquids at pillars of fauces


what occurs during the swallowing pharyngeal phase of the feeding cycle?

- involuntary movements push bolus through pharynx into oesophagus
- epiglottis seals of larynx preventing food entering the respiratory tract
- UOS relaxes, to allow bolus into the oesophagus and then contracts to counteract backflow


why might ditching occur in an amalgam restoration?

- material is repeatedly stressed for long periods at low stress levels: below elastic limit
- it may flow resulting in permanent deformation
- amalgam then sits proud of surface due to this flow, and is vulnerable to fracture


what can a dentist do, in terms of cavity prep, to avoid ditching in an amalgam restoration?

- remove all caries
- use acid etch and bond
- use a lining material
- lining material helps spread forces down the long axis of the tooth, instead of placing stress on the interface between tooth & restoration
- this reduced stress on the amalgam therefor reducing creep & therefor reducing ditching


what are examples of 4 factors that may contribute to secondary caries in an amalgam restoration?

- microleakage due to no chemical bond between restoration and tooth
- fracture of enamel at margins causing ditching has compromised any seal that was present at the restoration/tooth interface
- poor oral hygiene will prevent removal of plaque
- there is no lining material underlying the amalgam, meaning the dentine has no protection from bacteria and endotoxins


what are 5 risk factors that make someone a high caries risk?

- poor oral hygiene
- poor diet
- xerostomia
- frequency of sugar intake
- susceptible tooth surface (tight contacts, receded gingiva)


how is cystic fibrosis acquired?

it is an inherited disorder
- CFTR gene - chromosome 7
- recessive gene
- both parents must have it


what are the treatment options for a patient suffering with cystic fibrosis?

- physiotherapy
- exercise
- medication
- transplantation


how does cystic fibrosis affect the body?

- inherited gene defect in cell chloride channels
- produces excess sticky mucous
- lungs are congested
- malabsorption of nutrients in the pancreas


how can you test for cystic fibrosis?

- perinatal testing (all children are now screened at birth)
- sweat test (measures salt content of sweat which is higher in CF patients)


what are the three main stages in forming a blood clot?

- vasoconstriction
- platelet plug & aggregation
- fibrinogen to fibrin


define bioavailability:

fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available for clinical effect


describe first past metabolism:

- concentration of drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation
- fraction of the drug is lost during the process of absorption in the gut and metabolism in the liver


what are 2 disadvantages of administering drugs via the oral route?

- first pass metabolism occurs
- risk of drug causing gastric irritation & ulceration (NSAIDs eg.)


what are the 9 SICPs?

- patient placement
- safe waste disposal
- safe handling of uniform
- cleanliness of environment
- cleanliness of care
- prevention of exposure to BBV
- management of bodily fluid spillages
- hand hygiene


what are the 6 links in the chain of infection?

- infection agent
- reservoir
- portal of exit
- mode of transmission
- portal of entry
- susceptible host


what are the 7 modes of transmission?

- direct
- indirect
- inhalation
- ingestion
- inoculation
- intercourse
- mother to infant


what are the 5 moments for hand hygiene in a clinical environment?

- before touching a patient
- before a clean/aseptic procedure
- after bodily fluid exposure risk
- after touching the patient
- after touching patient surroundings