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Flashcards in Bunch of MSA questions Deck (55)
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1

what are the three main routes of metastatic spread of cancer?

- lymphatic
- haematogenous
- transcoelomic

2

give one examples of a cancer which spreads?

colon cancer metastasises to liver

3

name 2 clinical classifications of tumours:

- benign
- malignant

4

name two histological classifications of tumours:

- epithelial
- mesenchyme

5

what are 5 features of benign tumours?

1. growth is slow
2. growth is non-invasive
3. benign tumours do not spread
4. do not recur when removed
5. tumour margins are not well defined

6

name 5 features of malignant tumours:

1. growth is rapid
2. growth is invasive (destroys tissue)
3. tumour spreads
4. recurrence after excision
5. tumour margins are well defined

7

name two benign tumours are their tissue of origin:

- lipoma = fat tissue
- chondroma = cartilage

8

name two malignant tumours and their tissue of origin:

- carcinoma = epithelial cells
- lymphoma = bone marrow/blood forming cell

9

name 4 demographic factors (characteristics of a population, expressed statistically):

- Age
- Sex/gender
- employment status
- postcode

10

briefly describe the Ingestion phase of feeding:

- movement of food from external environment to internal environment
- accomplished by biting and oral seal

11

briefly describe stage on of transport in the feeding cycle:

food is gathered on tongue tip and moved to the level of the posterior teeth

12

briefly describe the mechanical processing phase of the feeding cycle:

- solid foods are broken down and mixed with saliva before swallowing
- moist solid foods need to have fluid removed before transport & swallowing
- food is chewed with premolars and molars
- soft foods are squashed against the hard palate

13

what occurs in stage two of transport during feeding?

- bolus moved posteriorly by ‘squeeze back’ mechanism
- solid foods moved through fauces to pharyngeal surface of tongue
- ‘seal’ holds liquids at pillars of fauces

14

what occurs during the swallowing pharyngeal phase of the feeding cycle?

- involuntary movements push bolus through pharynx into oesophagus
- epiglottis seals of larynx preventing food entering the respiratory tract
- UOS relaxes, to allow bolus into the oesophagus and then contracts to counteract backflow

15

why might ditching occur in an amalgam restoration?

- material is repeatedly stressed for long periods at low stress levels: below elastic limit
- it may flow resulting in permanent deformation
- amalgam then sits proud of surface due to this flow, and is vulnerable to fracture

16

what can a dentist do, in terms of cavity prep, to avoid ditching in an amalgam restoration?

- remove all caries
- use acid etch and bond
- use a lining material
- lining material helps spread forces down the long axis of the tooth, instead of placing stress on the interface between tooth & restoration
- this reduced stress on the amalgam therefor reducing creep & therefor reducing ditching

17

what are examples of 4 factors that may contribute to secondary caries in an amalgam restoration?

- microleakage due to no chemical bond between restoration and tooth
- fracture of enamel at margins causing ditching has compromised any seal that was present at the restoration/tooth interface
- poor oral hygiene will prevent removal of plaque
- there is no lining material underlying the amalgam, meaning the dentine has no protection from bacteria and endotoxins

18

what are 5 risk factors that make someone a high caries risk?

- poor oral hygiene
- poor diet
- xerostomia
- frequency of sugar intake
- susceptible tooth surface (tight contacts, receded gingiva)

19

how is cystic fibrosis acquired?

it is an inherited disorder
- CFTR gene - chromosome 7
- recessive gene
- both parents must have it

20

what are the treatment options for a patient suffering with cystic fibrosis?

- physiotherapy
- exercise
- medication
- transplantation

21

how does cystic fibrosis affect the body?

- inherited gene defect in cell chloride channels
- produces excess sticky mucous
- lungs are congested
- malabsorption of nutrients in the pancreas

22

how can you test for cystic fibrosis?

- perinatal testing (all children are now screened at birth)
- sweat test (measures salt content of sweat which is higher in CF patients)

23

what are the three main stages in forming a blood clot?

- vasoconstriction
- platelet plug & aggregation
- fibrinogen to fibrin

24

define bioavailability:

fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available for clinical effect

25

describe first past metabolism:

- concentration of drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation
- fraction of the drug is lost during the process of absorption in the gut and metabolism in the liver

26

what are 2 disadvantages of administering drugs via the oral route?

- first pass metabolism occurs
- risk of drug causing gastric irritation & ulceration (NSAIDs eg.)

27

what are the 9 SICPs?

- patient placement
- safe waste disposal
- safe handling of uniform
- cleanliness of environment
- cleanliness of care
- prevention of exposure to BBV
- management of bodily fluid spillages
- PPE
- hand hygiene

28

what are the 6 links in the chain of infection?

- infection agent
- reservoir
- portal of exit
- mode of transmission
- portal of entry
- susceptible host

29

what are the 7 modes of transmission?

- direct
- indirect
- inhalation
- ingestion
- inoculation
- intercourse
- mother to infant

30

what are the 5 moments for hand hygiene in a clinical environment?

- before touching a patient
- before a clean/aseptic procedure
- after bodily fluid exposure risk
- after touching the patient
- after touching patient surroundings