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Flashcards in Burgundy Deck (82):
1

Pinot Noir percentage of Burgundy Vineyards

1/3

2

Pinot Noir is what type of grape??

sensitive to yield pressure, delicate and susceptible to vineyard disease, highly affected by frost and heat, one of the oldest vitas vinifera prone to mutation

3

Name two old names for Pinot Noir

Morillon or Noirien

4

Currently, do most producers use selection massale or clone selection in field?

selection massale (field selection) better genetic diversity and complexity in the final wine

5

Name another name for Gamay

Gamay noir a jus blanc

6

Gamay is a crossing of what? sibling of what?

pinot x gouges blanc, sibling of chardonnay

7

When was Gamay ripped out of Burgundy? By who's request?

1395, Philip the Bold

8

What is the most planted grape in Burgundy?

Chardonnay

9

Chardonnay is also known as _____ in the Yonne/Chablis

Beaunois

10

What is Chardonnay a crossing of?

Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc

11

What is more resilient, Chardonnay or Pinot Noir?

Chardonnay

12

Aligote is a crossing of what?

Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc

13

What commune in Cote Chalonnaise is most known for Aligote?

Bouzeron

14

Sauvignon Blanc is planted in which Burgundy AOP?

Saint-Bris AOP in Yonne Department

15

Where is Pinot Blanc permitted?

Many appellations but is often not grown, authorized up to grand cru

16

Pinot Gris is also known as?

Beurot

17

How is Pinot Gris often used in Burgundy?

minor grape for red blends

18

Cesar is described as what type of grape? where it is used and how?

tannic, red grape (german origin) blended with pinot noir Irancy, yet only allowed as a minor component in AOP only 10 ha

19

Tressot?

ancient red variety from Duras x Petit Verdot, commercially irrelevant

20

Sacy?

only authorized for sparkling wines in Burgundy, another pinot noir x gouais blanc

21

What latitude is Burgundy?

46-48 degree latitude, 47th parallel runs through Volnay

22

climate of Burgundy?

continental

23

how does Burgundy compare to other new world pinot and chardonnay regions?

Burgundy is warmer than most but sunshine and average temp throughout the entire season are lower, and the growing season is compressed

24

how many sunlight hours in Burgundy and average temperatures

1,300 and average temps of 68 degrees July-August

25

When is budbreak in Burgundy?

late April

26

flowering in Burgundy?

mid-June

27

veraison?

early August

28

harvest?

end of September

29

What are the five main growing regions in Burgundy?

Chablis, Cote d'Or Cote Chalonnaise, Maconnais and Beaujolais

30

Grand Auxerrois is made up of what communes?

Vezelay, Irancy, Tonnerre, Joigny, Chablis

31

Cote Chalonnaise lies in which department?

Saone et Loire department

32

Which river runs from S. of the Cote d'Or ( Chalon-sur-Saone) to Macon?

Saone river

33

Most of Beaujolais lies in which department?

Rhone Department, except for a small portion in the north

34

How does the landscape change from the north to south of Maconnais ?

North- like chalonnaise (rolling hills) South-jagged limestone including the rock of solutre

35

Who were the Burgundians?

Small Germanic Tribesman who arrived in 436

36

Where/when were the Benedictine Monks establish in Burgundy?

Abbey at Cluny in Burgundy after the dark ages

37

Who are the Cistercians? What famous vineyard holding are the known for?

an offshoot of the Benedictines (about the 12th century) including Clos Vougeot

38

Who were the Dukes of Valois?

1363-1477 ruled until the French Town took over

39

Hospices de Beaune?

Nicolas Rolin founded in 1443, every year holds wine auction 3rd Saturday in November for proceeds to benefit the sick

40

Pre and Post revolutionary change in Burgundy?

church and private ownership before French Revolution, after land was seized and auctioned off early 1790's

41

Napoleonic code? what year?

1804 abolished primogeniture, requiring for inheritance to be split equally

42

primogeniture?

first born succession of estate

43

when did Negociant houses begin? and controlled trade till?

18th century until estate bottling in 1920's

44

metayage?

sharecropping

45

fermage?

leasing agreements

46

Winemaking practice trends 1950's and 1960's?

could be sold in barrel and bottled elsewhere

47

Winemaking practices in 1980's and 1990's?

rise of new oak for wines, rising levels or ripeness at harvest, preoccupation with darker color, greater reliance on cultured yeasts, enzymes etc. new equipment such as distempers, sorting tables, temperature control and pneumatic presses

48

cold maceration? who pushed for this method?

made famous by Henri Jayer, grapes are crushed and cold soaked at 10-14C for days, up to a week or more as a way to extract color, less astringent tannins and develop fruit aromatics (halting the onset of fermentation)

49

carbonic vs semi-carbonic?

carbonic= whole clusters or whole berries in a closed vat, pump in CO2 (berries undergo intracellular fermentation, consuming sugar and malic acid to produce alcohol and CO2 w/o yeast)
semi-carbonic=CO2 is produced naturally, whole clusters at the bottom of the tank break naturally and ferment normally, creating a blanket of CO2

50

What is the result of carbonic maceration?

fruity and floral aromas

51

Whole cluster is more affective during warm or cold years?

warm, ripeness of stems

52

benefits of whole cluster?

provides more aeration during fermentation, creating cooler temperatures, lighter color and slightly carbonic notes, firmer tannin in wine

53

what causes pre-mox?

low sulfur dioxide, excessive stirring of lees, whole bunch pressing, extremely stressed vines

54

chaptalization in Burgundy?

super common, producers now add sugar later in the fermentation process

55

subtractive must enrichment?

remove up to 10% of water from must

56

acidification legality in Burgundy?

is legal, and must be declared and documented

57

why has the need to acidify in Burgundy decreased?

less potassium in the soil from the chemical days, higher potassium raises pH in red wine macerations

58

is it legal to acidify and chaptalize the same wine?

no, one or other, not both

59

does malo typically occur naturally in Burgundy?

yes

60

what is the size and name of a typical barrel in Burgundy?

225L Piece, some producers are using larger barrel for chardonnay 350-400L barrels

61

pigeage?

punch down, common in Burgundy, encourage contact and extraction of cap and must

62

What are the 4 tiers of Burgundy AOP system?

regional, village, premier cru and grand cru

63

are premiere crus a separate class of Burgundy AOP?

no, legal defined geographic designation for village AOP wines

64

climat?

single vineyard, also extends to a terroir definition "a parcel of vines defined and named to be associated with the wine it produces"

65

lieu-dit?

named single vineyard

66

cru?

imprecise term, indicate quality and to indicate a place- (croitre = to grow)

67

clos?

a vineyard with a stone wall

68

village?

imprecise term, commune is an administrated unit of local government

69

hamlet?

small unit within a commune

70

Coteaux Bourguignons AOP?

shares the same broad dimensions as Bourgogne AOP but includes Gamay

71

Bourgogne AOP?

red, white, rose wines from pinot and chardonnay grapes (varieties such as pinot gris, pinot blanc and cesar may be included but just in minor roles)

72

Name the four lieu dits approved in 1990's approved for geographic designations for Bourgogne AOP?

la Chapelle Notre Dame, Le Chapitre, Cote St Jacques, Montrecul

73

Bourgogne Mousseux AOP?

sparkling reds produced via the traditional method, use to be sparkling versions of the famous vineyards

74

Cremant de Bourgogne AOP?

1975 hand harvested, traditional method white and rose sparkling wines produced from chardonnay and pinot noir

75

What commune produces Cremant de Bourgogne AOP?

can be produced anywhere, centered around Fully in Cote Chalonnaise (where sparkling wines were born in the early 8th century )

76

How many grand crus vineyards in the Cote d'Or? Smallest? Largest?

32, La Romanee AOP .85ha, Corton AOP 160ha

77

Bourgogne Hautes Cotes de Nuits? Bourgogne Hautes Cotes de Beaune?

red and wine sourced form scattered villages in the low mountains west of Cote d'Or

78

Cote de Beaune Village AOP?

red, mostly sourced from any village excluding Pommard, Volnay, Aloxe-Corton

79

Cote de Nuits-Village AOP

red, and rarely some white (may be sourced from which villages?) Fixin, Brochon, Prissey, Corgoloin and Comblachien in the South

80

Bourgogne Aligote AOP

separate appellation for varietal wines only from aligote

81

Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP

reds and roses modeled after field blends, pinot noir must make up 30% and gamay 15%, must be vinified together, red more common than rose

82

What famous cocktail uses Aligote?

Kir with creme de cassis