Flashcards in Burgundy Deck (82):
Pinot Noir percentage of Burgundy Vineyards
Pinot Noir is what type of grape??
sensitive to yield pressure, delicate and susceptible to vineyard disease, highly affected by frost and heat, one of the oldest vitas vinifera prone to mutation
Name two old names for Pinot Noir
Morillon or Noirien
Currently, do most producers use selection massale or clone selection in field?
selection massale (field selection) better genetic diversity and complexity in the final wine
Name another name for Gamay
Gamay noir a jus blanc
Gamay is a crossing of what? sibling of what?
pinot x gouges blanc, sibling of chardonnay
When was Gamay ripped out of Burgundy? By who's request?
1395, Philip the Bold
What is the most planted grape in Burgundy?
Chardonnay is also known as _____ in the Yonne/Chablis
What is Chardonnay a crossing of?
Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc
What is more resilient, Chardonnay or Pinot Noir?
Aligote is a crossing of what?
Pinot Noir x Gouais Blanc
What commune in Cote Chalonnaise is most known for Aligote?
Sauvignon Blanc is planted in which Burgundy AOP?
Saint-Bris AOP in Yonne Department
Where is Pinot Blanc permitted?
Many appellations but is often not grown, authorized up to grand cru
Pinot Gris is also known as?
How is Pinot Gris often used in Burgundy?
minor grape for red blends
Cesar is described as what type of grape? where it is used and how?
tannic, red grape (german origin) blended with pinot noir Irancy, yet only allowed as a minor component in AOP only 10 ha
ancient red variety from Duras x Petit Verdot, commercially irrelevant
only authorized for sparkling wines in Burgundy, another pinot noir x gouais blanc
What latitude is Burgundy?
46-48 degree latitude, 47th parallel runs through Volnay
climate of Burgundy?
how does Burgundy compare to other new world pinot and chardonnay regions?
Burgundy is warmer than most but sunshine and average temp throughout the entire season are lower, and the growing season is compressed
how many sunlight hours in Burgundy and average temperatures
1,300 and average temps of 68 degrees July-August
When is budbreak in Burgundy?
flowering in Burgundy?
end of September
What are the five main growing regions in Burgundy?
Chablis, Cote d'Or Cote Chalonnaise, Maconnais and Beaujolais
Grand Auxerrois is made up of what communes?
Vezelay, Irancy, Tonnerre, Joigny, Chablis
Cote Chalonnaise lies in which department?
Saone et Loire department
Which river runs from S. of the Cote d'Or ( Chalon-sur-Saone) to Macon?
Most of Beaujolais lies in which department?
Rhone Department, except for a small portion in the north
How does the landscape change from the north to south of Maconnais ?
North- like chalonnaise (rolling hills) South-jagged limestone including the rock of solutre
Who were the Burgundians?
Small Germanic Tribesman who arrived in 436
Where/when were the Benedictine Monks establish in Burgundy?
Abbey at Cluny in Burgundy after the dark ages
Who are the Cistercians? What famous vineyard holding are the known for?
an offshoot of the Benedictines (about the 12th century) including Clos Vougeot
Who were the Dukes of Valois?
1363-1477 ruled until the French Town took over
Hospices de Beaune?
Nicolas Rolin founded in 1443, every year holds wine auction 3rd Saturday in November for proceeds to benefit the sick
Pre and Post revolutionary change in Burgundy?
church and private ownership before French Revolution, after land was seized and auctioned off early 1790's
Napoleonic code? what year?
1804 abolished primogeniture, requiring for inheritance to be split equally
first born succession of estate
when did Negociant houses begin? and controlled trade till?
18th century until estate bottling in 1920's
Winemaking practice trends 1950's and 1960's?
could be sold in barrel and bottled elsewhere
Winemaking practices in 1980's and 1990's?
rise of new oak for wines, rising levels or ripeness at harvest, preoccupation with darker color, greater reliance on cultured yeasts, enzymes etc. new equipment such as distempers, sorting tables, temperature control and pneumatic presses
cold maceration? who pushed for this method?
made famous by Henri Jayer, grapes are crushed and cold soaked at 10-14C for days, up to a week or more as a way to extract color, less astringent tannins and develop fruit aromatics (halting the onset of fermentation)
carbonic vs semi-carbonic?
carbonic= whole clusters or whole berries in a closed vat, pump in CO2 (berries undergo intracellular fermentation, consuming sugar and malic acid to produce alcohol and CO2 w/o yeast)
semi-carbonic=CO2 is produced naturally, whole clusters at the bottom of the tank break naturally and ferment normally, creating a blanket of CO2
What is the result of carbonic maceration?
fruity and floral aromas
Whole cluster is more affective during warm or cold years?
warm, ripeness of stems
benefits of whole cluster?
provides more aeration during fermentation, creating cooler temperatures, lighter color and slightly carbonic notes, firmer tannin in wine
what causes pre-mox?
low sulfur dioxide, excessive stirring of lees, whole bunch pressing, extremely stressed vines
chaptalization in Burgundy?
super common, producers now add sugar later in the fermentation process
subtractive must enrichment?
remove up to 10% of water from must
acidification legality in Burgundy?
is legal, and must be declared and documented
why has the need to acidify in Burgundy decreased?
less potassium in the soil from the chemical days, higher potassium raises pH in red wine macerations
is it legal to acidify and chaptalize the same wine?
no, one or other, not both
does malo typically occur naturally in Burgundy?
what is the size and name of a typical barrel in Burgundy?
225L Piece, some producers are using larger barrel for chardonnay 350-400L barrels
punch down, common in Burgundy, encourage contact and extraction of cap and must
What are the 4 tiers of Burgundy AOP system?
regional, village, premier cru and grand cru
are premiere crus a separate class of Burgundy AOP?
no, legal defined geographic designation for village AOP wines
single vineyard, also extends to a terroir definition "a parcel of vines defined and named to be associated with the wine it produces"
named single vineyard
imprecise term, indicate quality and to indicate a place- (croitre = to grow)
a vineyard with a stone wall
imprecise term, commune is an administrated unit of local government
small unit within a commune
Coteaux Bourguignons AOP?
shares the same broad dimensions as Bourgogne AOP but includes Gamay
red, white, rose wines from pinot and chardonnay grapes (varieties such as pinot gris, pinot blanc and cesar may be included but just in minor roles)
Name the four lieu dits approved in 1990's approved for geographic designations for Bourgogne AOP?
la Chapelle Notre Dame, Le Chapitre, Cote St Jacques, Montrecul
Bourgogne Mousseux AOP?
sparkling reds produced via the traditional method, use to be sparkling versions of the famous vineyards
Cremant de Bourgogne AOP?
1975 hand harvested, traditional method white and rose sparkling wines produced from chardonnay and pinot noir
What commune produces Cremant de Bourgogne AOP?
can be produced anywhere, centered around Fully in Cote Chalonnaise (where sparkling wines were born in the early 8th century )
How many grand crus vineyards in the Cote d'Or? Smallest? Largest?
32, La Romanee AOP .85ha, Corton AOP 160ha
Bourgogne Hautes Cotes de Nuits? Bourgogne Hautes Cotes de Beaune?
red and wine sourced form scattered villages in the low mountains west of Cote d'Or
Cote de Beaune Village AOP?
red, mostly sourced from any village excluding Pommard, Volnay, Aloxe-Corton
Cote de Nuits-Village AOP
red, and rarely some white (may be sourced from which villages?) Fixin, Brochon, Prissey, Corgoloin and Comblachien in the South
Bourgogne Aligote AOP
separate appellation for varietal wines only from aligote
Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOP
reds and roses modeled after field blends, pinot noir must make up 30% and gamay 15%, must be vinified together, red more common than rose