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1

We use by in many expressions to say h__ we do something.

 

We use by in many expressions to say how we do something.

  • Can I pay by credit card/check?
  • You can contact me by phone/fax/email.

Note: we say pay cash or pay in cash (not usually by cash).

 

2

We also say that something happens __ mistake /__ accident / __ chance:

 

 

We also say that something happens by mistake / by accident / by chance:

  • We hadn't arranged to meet. We met by chance.

Note: we say by chance, by credit card etc. (not by the chance I by a credit card). In these expressions we use by + noun without 'the' or 'a'.

3

In the same way we use by... to say h__somebody travels.

In the same way we use by... to say h__somebody travels.

by car / by train / by plane / by boat / by ship / by bus / by bike / by road / by rail / by air / by sea

But we say on foot:

  • Did you come here by car or on foot?

You cannot use by if you say my car / the train / a taxi. We say:

  • by car but in my car (not by my car)
  • by train but on the train (not by the train)

4

We say that "something is d___ by somebody/ something" (passive).

We say that "something is d___ by somebody/ something" (passive).

  • Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
  • The programme was watched by millions of people.

Compare by and with:

  • The door must have been opened with a key. (not by a key) (= somebody used a key to open it)
  • The door must have been opened by somebody with a key.

We also say "a play by Shakespeare" / "a painting by Rembrandt" / "a novel by Tolstoy".

5

By also means "n___ to / be__".
 

By also means "next to / beside".

  • Come and sit by me. (= next to me)
  • 'Where's the light switch?' 'By the door.'

6

Gregg's salary has just gone up from $3,000 a month to $3300.  So it has increased b_ $300 / b_ ten per cent.

 

 

Gregg's salary has just gone up from $3,000 a month to $3300.  So it has increased by $300 / by ten per cent.

7

Complete the sentence using by + one of the following (satellite/credit card/hand/mistake).

I didn't intend to take your umbrella. I took it  ____.
 

 

Complete the sentence using by + one of the following (satellite/credit card/hand/mistake).

I didn't intend to take your umbrella. I took it by mistake.

8

Complete the sentence using by + one of the following (satellite/credit card/hand/mistake).

Don't put the sweater in the washing machine. lt has to be washed ____.

 

 

 

Complete the sentence using by + one of the following (satellite/credit card/hand/mistake).

Don't put the sweater in the washing machine. lt has to be washed by hand.

9

Complete the sentence using by + one of the following (satellite/credit card/hand/mistake).

I don't need cash. I can pay the bill ____.

Complete the sentence using by + one of the following (satellite/credit card/hand/mistake).

I don't need cash. I can pay the bill by credit card.

10

Complete the sentence using by + one of the following (satellite/credit card/hand/mistake).

The two cities were connected ____ for a television program.

 

 

 

 

Complete the sentence using by + one of the following (satellite/credit card/hand/mistake).

The two cities were connected by satellite for a television program.

 

11

Put in by, in, or on.

I decided not to go __ car. I went __ my bike instead.

Put in by, in, or on.

I decided not to go by car. I went on my bike instead. (we use "on" for bike and public transportation (buses, trains, etc.)

12

Put in by, in, or on.

I didn't feel like walking home, so I came home __ a taxi.

Put in by, in, or on.

I didn't feel like walking home, so I came home in a taxi. (we "in" not "by" with "a taxi")

13

Put in by, in, on, or with.

The plane was badly damaged __ lightning.

Put in by, in, on, or with.

The plane was badly damaged by lightning.

14

Put in by, in, on, or with.

We managed to put the fire out __ a fire extinguisher.

Put in by, in, on, or with.

We managed to put the fire out with a fire extinguisher.

15

Put in by, in, on, or with.

Who is that man standing __ the window?

Put in by, in, on, or with.

Who is that man standing by the window?

16

Put in by, in, on, or with.

These photographs were taken __ a friend of mine.
 

 

 

 

Put in by, in, on, or with.

These photographs were taken by a friend of mine.

 

17

Put in by, in, on, or with.

I don't mind going __ car, but I don't want to go __ your car.

 

 

 

Put in by, in, on, or with.

I don't mind going by car, but I don't want to go in your car.

18

Put in by, in, on, or with.

There was a small table __ the bed __ a lamp and a clock __ it.

 

 

 

 

 

Put in by, in, on, or with.

There was a small table by the bed with a lamp and a clock on it.

19

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

I don't like travelling on bus.

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

I don't like travelling by bus.

20

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

These photographs were taken by a very good camera.

 

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

These photographs were taken with a very good camera.

21

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

I know this music is from Beethoven, but I can't
remember what it's called.

 

 

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

I know this music is by Beethoven, but I can't
remember what it's called.

22

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

I couldn't pay by cash - I didn't have any money on me.

 

 

 

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

I couldn't pay (...)/in cash - I didn't have any money on me.

23

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

We lost the game because of a mistake of one of our players.

 

 

 

 

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

We lost the game because of a mistake by one of our players.

24

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

There was an election. Helen won. She got 1000 and her opponent got 500 votes. She won with 500 votes.

 

 

 

 

Correct the mistake in the sentence.

There was an election. Helen won. She got 1000 vote and her opponent got 500 votes. She won by 500 votes.