C-Spine Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Spine Final > C-Spine Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in C-Spine Anatomy Deck (21):

Nuchal Ligament

lower c-spine
from external occipital protuberance and medial nuchal line to C7 spinous process
expansion of supraspinal ligament


PLL in Upper C-Spine

continuous with tectorial membrane to occiput


ALL in Upper C-Spine

starts from anterior tubercle of atlas


Vertical Ligament

deeper upper c-spine (cruciform)
foramen magnum to post body of axis


Transverse Ligament

deeper upper c-spine (cruciform)
thick and strong ligament from small tubercles on lateral masses of atlas (behind dens of axis)
holds dens to C1


Alar Ligament

deep to cruciform
B from dens upward and lateral to occiput near ant foramen magnum
limits flex and rot


Apical Ligament

deep to cruciform
apex of dens to ant margin of foramen magnum


Post Muscles

traps, lev cap
erector spinae (long - to mastoid process, iliocostalis - lower only)
transversospinalis, multifidus, rotatores - ends at C2
splenius cap and cerv - neck ext, rot same
semispinalis cap and cerv - neck ext


Suboccipital Muscles

occiput to C2 - connect atlas and axis to each other and to head
superior oblique - B ext head, SB same
inferior oblique - rot same atlas and head
rectus cap post major and minor - ext


Ant and Lat Muscles

SCM - B flex, SB same, rot opp
scalenes - SB same
infrahyoids - stabilizes hyoid


Deep Ant

longus colli - stabilize neck for flexion; C2-T3 along ant vert bodies
longus capitus - assists in head and neck flex; t-processes C3-C6 to in front of foramen magnum
rectus cap ant - flex head (atlas to occiput)
rectus cap lat - SB same (lateral masses of atlas to occiput)


Occipital Nerve

greater - C2 dorsal ramus traverses suboccipital triangle, pierces semispinalis cap to scap
lesser - C1 dorsal ramus within suboccipital triangle


Brachial Plexus (Roots and Major Nerves)

upper C5-6
mid C7
lower C8-T1

radial C5-T1
musculocutaneous C5-7
ulnar C8-T1
median C6-T1


Vascular Structures

vertebrobasilar artery - through vert artery foramen
subclavian arteries
carotid arteries
vert artery traverses c-spine through forman in t-processes
- can be impinged here cause artery makes two 90 deg turns at C1
- symptoms - dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea


OA Motion

10 flex, 25 ext
rot min, < 10 SB


AA Motion

10 flex, 10 ext
rot 50 each direction, SB min
3 joints = 2 facet joints (plane joints) and 1 pivot joint between dens and ant arch of atlas


Lower C-Spine Motion

100 deg total flex/ext
20 deg rot each side
30 deg SB each side


C-T Junction

transition zone (C lordosis to T kyphosis) = less mobility
facets become more vertically oriented
C7-T3 transition


Osseous Structural Differences in C-Spine

presence of vert artery foramen
bifid spinous processes
presence of uncovertebral joints - formed by articular areas of vert bodies (not true joints, side-to-side translation type movement)
- restriction sometimes at these joints and not facets


Upper C-Spine

OA, AA, no IVD
C1 - ringlike, 2 t-processes, no s-process, fovea for dens, transverse ligament for stability
C2 - dens (odontoid process) - pivot for rotation at AA
occiput goes backwards with FB (vice versa)


Lower C-Spine

C2-3 to C6-7 segments with IVDs
facet joints inclined at 45 deg plane (make up articular pillars)
gutters for nerve roots
t-processes very close to vert body
uncovertebral joints may limit SB