C-Spine Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Spine Final > C-Spine Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in C-Spine Anatomy Deck (21):
1

Nuchal Ligament

lower c-spine
from external occipital protuberance and medial nuchal line to C7 spinous process
expansion of supraspinal ligament

2

PLL in Upper C-Spine

continuous with tectorial membrane to occiput

3

ALL in Upper C-Spine

starts from anterior tubercle of atlas
thin

4

Vertical Ligament

deeper upper c-spine (cruciform)
foramen magnum to post body of axis

5

Transverse Ligament

deeper upper c-spine (cruciform)
thick and strong ligament from small tubercles on lateral masses of atlas (behind dens of axis)
holds dens to C1

6

Alar Ligament

deep to cruciform
B from dens upward and lateral to occiput near ant foramen magnum
limits flex and rot

7

Apical Ligament

deep to cruciform
apex of dens to ant margin of foramen magnum

8

Post Muscles

traps, lev cap
erector spinae (long - to mastoid process, iliocostalis - lower only)
transversospinalis, multifidus, rotatores - ends at C2
splenius cap and cerv - neck ext, rot same
semispinalis cap and cerv - neck ext

9

Suboccipital Muscles

occiput to C2 - connect atlas and axis to each other and to head
superior oblique - B ext head, SB same
inferior oblique - rot same atlas and head
rectus cap post major and minor - ext

10

Ant and Lat Muscles

SCM - B flex, SB same, rot opp
scalenes - SB same
infrahyoids - stabilizes hyoid

11

Deep Ant

longus colli - stabilize neck for flexion; C2-T3 along ant vert bodies
longus capitus - assists in head and neck flex; t-processes C3-C6 to in front of foramen magnum
rectus cap ant - flex head (atlas to occiput)
rectus cap lat - SB same (lateral masses of atlas to occiput)

12

Occipital Nerve

greater - C2 dorsal ramus traverses suboccipital triangle, pierces semispinalis cap to scap
lesser - C1 dorsal ramus within suboccipital triangle

13

Brachial Plexus (Roots and Major Nerves)

upper C5-6
mid C7
lower C8-T1

radial C5-T1
musculocutaneous C5-7
ulnar C8-T1
median C6-T1

14

Vascular Structures

vertebrobasilar artery - through vert artery foramen
subclavian arteries
carotid arteries
vert artery traverses c-spine through forman in t-processes
- can be impinged here cause artery makes two 90 deg turns at C1
- symptoms - dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea

15

OA Motion

10 flex, 25 ext
rot min, < 10 SB
convex-on-concave

16

AA Motion

10 flex, 10 ext
rot 50 each direction, SB min
3 joints = 2 facet joints (plane joints) and 1 pivot joint between dens and ant arch of atlas

17

Lower C-Spine Motion

100 deg total flex/ext
20 deg rot each side
30 deg SB each side

18

C-T Junction

transition zone (C lordosis to T kyphosis) = less mobility
facets become more vertically oriented
C7-T3 transition

19

Osseous Structural Differences in C-Spine

presence of vert artery foramen
bifid spinous processes
presence of uncovertebral joints - formed by articular areas of vert bodies (not true joints, side-to-side translation type movement)
- restriction sometimes at these joints and not facets

20

Upper C-Spine

OA, AA, no IVD
C1 - ringlike, 2 t-processes, no s-process, fovea for dens, transverse ligament for stability
C2 - dens (odontoid process) - pivot for rotation at AA
occiput goes backwards with FB (vice versa)

21

Lower C-Spine

C2-3 to C6-7 segments with IVDs
facet joints inclined at 45 deg plane (make up articular pillars)
gutters for nerve roots
t-processes very close to vert body
uncovertebral joints may limit SB