What is crude oil?
Mixture of hydrocarbons
What is a mixture?
2 or more substances mixed but not chemically bonded together
What is the general formula for alkanes?
What is a hydrocarbon?
Compound made from only carbon and hydrogen
Are alkanes saturated or unsaturated?
What does the line in between C-C in a molecule show?
Covalent bond, a shared pair of electrons
What method is used to separate crude oil?
Describe how fractional distillation works?
Crude oil is heated to evaporate and then the different fractions are condensed because of their different boiling points
As the number of carbons increase in an alkane what happens to the boiling point?
As the number of carbons increase in an alkane what happens to the viscosity?
It increases, gets more sticky
As the number of carbons increase in an alkane what happens to the flammability?
Gets less flammable
As the temperature of oil increases what happens to the viscosity?
Gets less viscous, more runny
What are the products of complete combustion of hydrocarbons?
Carbon dioxide and water
What are the products of incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons?
Carbon monoxide and carbon (soot)
If crude oil contains some sulfur what combustion product will be made?
In combustion are carbon and hydrocarbon oxidised or reduced?
Oxidised as oxygen is added
High temperatures may cause oxides of nitrogen what type of pollution is caused by the oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide?
What effect does this pollution have on the environment?
Weathering of rocks and buildings, and changes acidity of the soil
Carbon dioxide causes what type of pollution?
Solid particles (soot or unburnt fuel) causes what type of pollution?
Give 2 ways sulfur dioxide can be reduced?
Removing sulfur before burning of the fuel and removal of sulfur dioxide after burning
What are biodiesel and bioethanol made from?
Give two advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen as an alternative fuel.
Made from water and renewable
Storing is expensive and flammable
Give two advantages and disadvantages of using bioethanol as an alternative fuel.
Renewable and doesn’t produce toxic fumes
Need to have the climate to grow sugar cane and it uses lot of fields that could be used for food
Why is bioethanol described as carbon neutral?
The carbon dioxide given out when burnt is the carbon dioxide taken in during photosynthesis of the plants
What are products of combustion hydrogen?