Flashcards in C1 - Particles Deck (19):
What happens to the vibrations of particles when a solid becomes hotter?
They vibrate more
What happens if you heat a solid?
It will melt and become liquid
How are the particles in solids arranged?
In a regular lattice arrangement
How do the particles in solids move?
They vibrate around a fixed position
How do the particles in liquids move?
They move constantly with random motion
What happens if you cool a liquid
It will freeze and become solid
What happens if you heat a liquid enough?
It will evaporate and become a gas
How do the particles in gases move?
They travel in straight lines and only interact when they collide
What do gases exert?
What happens if you cool a gas?
It will condense and become a liquid
What are the limitations of the particle model?
1) does not give any idea of the size of the particles
2) does not give any idea of the space between the particles
3) does not show any of the forces between the particles
What is a physical change?
1) when a substance changes from one state of matter to another
2) no new substances are made
What happens during a chemical reaction?
1) bonds between atoms break
2) atoms change places
3) atoms from the reactants rearrange themselves to form products
What are atoms
Tiny particles of matter which make up everything in the universe
How did John Dalton describe atoms?
1) solid spheres
2) different spheres made up different elements
How did JJ Thompson describe atoms?
1) plum pudding model
2) atoms weren't solid spheres
3) atoms contained negatively charged particles - electrons
How did Ernest Rutherford describe atoms?
1) in the atom there is a tiny, positively charged nucleus at the centre
2) most of the atom is empty space
What was the gold foil experiment?
1) positively charged alpha particles were fired at an extremely thin sheet of gold
2) most particles passed straight through the gold sheet
3) some particles were deflected more than expected
4) a small number of particles were deflected backwards