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Flashcards in C3 Deck (66)
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1
Q

Name the ionic charges of each group

A

G1 - +1
G2 - +2
G3 - +3
G4 - +/- 4
G5 - -3
G6 - -2
G7 - -1
G8/0 - 0

2
Q

What is the law of the conservation of mass?

A

States that atoms (mass) cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction

Mass can change in non enclosed systems, as substances can leave or enter

3
Q

What is a word equation

A

A simple model for a chemical reaction

E.g

Oxygen + hydrgogen → water

4
Q

What is a symbol equation

A

A simple model for a chemical reaction

E.g

O2 + H → h2O

5
Q

What is a half equation?

A

A model for change that happens to one reactant

Symbol : 2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl

Half : Na → Na+ +e-
And
Cl2 + 2e- → 2cl-

6
Q

What is an ionic equation and how do you form one

A

Shows the ions present in a mixture (reacting) It usually usually includes the formulae of any molecular substance in their solid state (e.g water)

Example:

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

This contains : H+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + OH-(aq) → Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + H2O(l)

As there is Na+ and Cl- on both sides they cancel out

This leaves us with H+(aq) + OH-(aq) → H2O(l)

7
Q

What is a mole

A

A mole is a unit for the amount of entities in a molecule.

1 mole is equal to the number of entities in 12g of a carbon12 atom

1 mol of water contains 1 mol of water particles
But it also contains a mol of 3 atoms as its H2O ( 2 H and 1 O)

8
Q

What is Avogadro’s constant?

A

It is the number of entities in 1 mol:

6.02×10^23

9
Q

What is relative atomic mass

A

The mass of 1 mol in a substance,

So 12g of carbon is one mol
7g of lithium is one mol

10
Q

How do you calculate number of moles in a substance

A

Number of moles = mass of a substance(g) / molar mass

E.g CO2 has a molar mass of 44g/mol
So 11g of CO2 would have 11/44 moles

11
Q

What is molar mass

A

The amount of mass in a substance, where each element it measured as 1 mol
(Total relative atomic mass)

H20 would be (1×2) + 16 = 18

12
Q

How do you calculate mass from moles

A

Mass = moles × molar mass

3.5 mol of PURE iron
3.5× 56 = 196g

13
Q

Reacting mass calculations!

What mass of oxygen reacts with 12g of magnesium

2Mg + O2 → 2MgO

A

2Mg + O2 → 2MgO

Moles = mass/ Mr
12/24 (ignore the 2 infront of Mg) = O.5

The 2 in front of Mg tells us there 2 mold of Mg for 1 mol of O2
(2 : 1)
(0.5 : 0.25)

Moles of O2 = 0.25
Mas of O2 = Mr × moles (16×2) × 0.25 = 8g

14
Q

What is an exothermic reaction?

A

Energy is released, so the temperature increases ( combustion)

15
Q

What is an Endothermic reaction?

A

Energy is absorbed, so temperature decreases (photosynthesis)

16
Q

What is a reaction profile

A

A chart which shows the energy involved in bonds are breaking

Exothermic - reactants above products (energy is lost)
Activation energy points up,
Energy points from the reactants down to the products

Endothermic - reactants below products (energy is gained)
Activation energy points up, going slightly higher than the products
Energy change points from reactants up to products

17
Q

How do you calculate energy change?
(Bonds)

A

Energy Change = bond breaking - bond making

Bond breaking is the products (energy needed to separate them)

Bond making is the reactants (energy needed to put them back together)

18
Q

What is the energy transferred in

(H-H) + (Br-Br) → 2H-Br
436. 193

H-Br = 366

A

Break. Make

H-H = 436 2(H-Br) = 2(366)
Br-Br = 193
Total = 629 Total = 732

Change = 629 - 732 = -103 kj/mol

It loses energy so is an exothermic reaction

19
Q

What is OILRIG

A

Oxidation
Is
Loss of electrons
Reduction
Is
Gain of electrons

20
Q

What are reducing and oxidising agents

A

Reducing agent = substance that reduces another, by accepting oxygen or donating electrons
(E.g 2PbO + C → 2Pb + CO2

Oxidising agents = substances that oxidise another substance by donating oxygen or accepting electrons
(E.g 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO)

21
Q

What are oxidation numbers?

A

Oxidation numbers (or states) are numbers assigned to reactants showing the change in electrons

Mg → Mg^2+ + 2e- (0 to 2 (reduction)

^2+ shows the charge/ number of electrons on an atom

22
Q

What are the 7 rules of redox reactions

A
  1. The oxidation state of an element is always 0
  2. The oxidation state of a monatomic ion (simple ions (only one element)) equals the charge on the ion
    Mg + Cl2 → MgCl2 (Mg^2+ and Cl-1
  3. The oxidation state of oxygen is usually -2
  4. The oxidation number of hydrogen is usually +1 however in NaH the Na is +1 and H is -1
  5. The oxidation number for fluorine is -1 (this is usally the same dor other halogens (group7))
  6. The oxidation numbers numbers from all atoms in a compund add up to 0
  7. The oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion
    E.g OH- (O= -2 H= +1 so 2-+(+1) = -1
23
Q

What is a redox reaction

A

A redox reaction shows the reduction and oxidisation happening at the same time, in terms of oxygen

24
Q

What is an aqueous solution?

A

A solution, in which the solvent is water

25
Q

At what pH is something acidic, alkaline or neutral

A

pH<7 is acidic
pH=7 is neutral
pH>7 is alkaline

pH scale is 0 → 14

26
Q

What is a base? (pH)

A

A base is an alkaline substance, usually containing metal oxide or metal hydroxide

It reacts with an acid to form salt and water

27
Q

What ions to alkalies have?
What ions do acids have?

A

Alkalies have OH-
Acids have H+

28
Q

What are alkalies

A

Alkalies are HYDROXIDES (bases) that dissolve in water

29
Q

What happens when an acid reacts with a carbonate or metal?

A

Carbonate = acid + carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide

Metal = acid + metal → salt + hydrogen

30
Q

What is a dilute acid, and what is a concentrated acid

A

A dilute acid has a low ratio of acid to solution
a concentrated acid has a high ratio of acid to solution

31
Q

What is a weak acid and what is a strong acid

A

In a weak acid it is partially ionised ( not all release H+ ions)

In a strong acid it is fully ionised (all molecules release H+ ions)

32
Q

What happens to the pH when the concentration of H+ ions increases by a factor of 10

A

pH decreases by 1

33
Q

What happens to the pH when the concentration of H+ ions is increased by 1000

A

Log(1000) = 3

It will decrease by 3

34
Q

What is Electrolysis?

A

A process in which an electrical current is passed through a compound causing a chemical reaction

35
Q

What is an Electrolyte?

A

A compound in its liquid state or in solution that contains ions and conducts electricity

36
Q

What is are the electrodes in emectrolysis?

A

An inert electrical conductor used in electrolysis (made from metal or graphite)

The cathode is the negative electrode and makes cations

The anode is the positive electrode and makes anions

37
Q

What happens in the electrolysis of molten lead bromide

PbBr2(l)

A

The positive ions are brought to the cathode
Pb^2+ + 2e- → Pb

The negative ions are brought to the anode
2Br- → Br2 + 2e-

Ions become atoms at an electrode

38
Q

What do you have in electrolysis of solutions, that isn’t in electrolysis of molten substances

A

Water, so you have H+ and OH- ions as well

39
Q

When will hydrogen be produced at the cathode?

A

If the metal is more reactive than hydrogen , it forces hydrogen to take the electron

40
Q

When will oxygen be produced at the anode

A

Oxygen is produced unless the other ion is in group 7

41
Q

What happens to electrolysis of Sodium chloride (NaCl)

A

Anode:

Cl- and OH-
Cl- is more reactive so
2Cl- -2e- → Cl2

Cathode
Na+ H+
Sodium is more reactive so
2H+ + 2e- → H2

Chlorine and hydrogen are given off as gasses while sodium and hydroxide are left in the solution

42
Q

How could you increase the rate of electrolysis?

A

If you increase the batteries current the rate would increase as the electricity would flow faster

43
Q

What is electroplating?

A

Coating an object with metal using the process of electrolysis

44
Q

If you wanted to coat brass with copper what would you do?

A

You would have a copper anode, copper solution and a brass cathode.

The positive metal ions would be attracted to the cathode where they gain electrons, forming a neutral molecule which would stick to the anode

45
Q

More moles!

Using Avogadros constant find the number of atoms in 1 mol of methane (CH4)

A

In CH4 there are 5 atoms in total.

You have 1 mol of it so it will stay as 6.02×10^23

Then times it by 5 as one methane ‘atom’ contains 5 atoms

Answer 3.01×10^24

46
Q

More moles 2!
Calculate The number of molecules in 0.500 mol of water molecules (H2O)

A

As we know 1 mol of anything contains 1 mol of its molecules we half Avogadros constant (times it by 0.500)

6.02×10^23 × 0.500 = 3.01×10^23

×3 = 9.03×10^23

47
Q

What are bond energies

A

The energy needed to break 1 mol of a particular bond

48
Q

What is a pH scale

A

A scale from 0-14 that describes a solution relative to acidity or alkalinity

49
Q

What is an aqueous solution

A

A solution where the solvent is water

50
Q

What is a pH titration curve

A

A curve on a graph showing the pH of a mixture of an unknown acid or base, compared to the volume added to that solution of a known acid / base

51
Q

How do you use titration to determine the concentration of an acid

A

Fill a burette with the acid

Use a volumetric pipette to transfer a specific amount of a base into a conical flask

Add a few drops of indicator

Gradually add the acid using the burette until there is a sharp colour change

Record the start and ending recordings on the burette to calculate the titre

Repeat until you get similar readings

52
Q

When electroplating why do you use non-inert electrodes

A

So ions can enter the solution when coating an object

53
Q

When electroplating what does the cathode do, what does the anode do, and what does the electeolyte do

A

The cathode is the object you want to coat

The anode is a piece of metal that you want to be coating the object with

The electrolyte is a solution containing ions of the object you want to coat

54
Q

How does electroplating work

A

Metal ions from the electrolyte are discharged on the surface of the cathode

The ions leaving the electrolyte are replaced by the ions from the anode.

This process will repeat until the anode is used up

The cathode is what you want to cover
The anode is the metal you are using
The electrolyte contains ions of what you are coating with

55
Q

How is copper purified

A

It is purified in a similar way to electroplating, but both electrodes are made from copper
The anode is impure copper and the cathode is pure

Cathode gains copper from the solution and increases the mass
The anode loses copper into the solution and loses mass.

As the anode loses mass impurities fall off and collect underneath the anode

56
Q

What happens carbonates react with acids

A

Acid + carbonate → carbon dioxide + water

57
Q

What reactions are exothermic

A

Combustion
Neutralisation

58
Q

What reactions are endothermic

A

Thermal decomposition
Electrolysis
Photosynthesis

59
Q

What happens to the energy in exothermic reactions

A

Energy of products is less than energy of reactants

Energy is transferred to the surroundings

(Negative energy change )

60
Q

What happens to the energy in endothermic reactions

A

Energy of products is less than reactants

Positive energy change (energy taken from the surroundings)

61
Q

In electrolysis of aqueous solutions what is produced at the cathode

A

If the metal in the solution is more reactive than hydrogen, hydrogen will be forced to react

Copper, silver gold and platinum can be produced

62
Q

In electrolysis of aqueous solutions what is produced at the anode

A

Unless a group 7 element is present oxygen is produced

63
Q

What is the half equation that happens at the cathode (solutions)

A

2H+ + 2e- → H2

64
Q

What is the half equation that happens at the anode (solutions)

A

4OH- → 2H^2O + O^2 + 4e-

65
Q

What is on the axis of a graph showing the change of energy for exothermic and endothermic reactions

A

Energy on the y axis
Time on the x axis

66
Q

What energy changes are there in bond breaking and making

A

Breaking = endo
Making = exo