Name the first four members of the alkanes.
1) CH4➡️Methane (Monkeys).
2) C2H6➡️Ethane (Eat).
3) C3H8➡️Propane (Peanut).
4) C4H10➡️Butane (Butter).
What is the common functional group of all alcohols?
What are the key properties of alcohols?
-Flammable➡️Burns in air (forming CO2 + H2O).
-Dissolves in water.
-Reacts with sodium to create hydrogen gas.
What are the main uses of alcohols?
-Fuel➡️Brazil ferments sugar for ethanol.
-Solvents (substance good at dissolving things).
What is the name of the alcohol found in alcoholic drinks?
Write the structural formula of propanol.
What is the common functional group of all carboxylic acids?
Why do carboxylic acids make weakly acidic solutions with water?
They partially dissociate in water➡️Not all molecules dissociate.
What common compound do carboxylic acids react with and what are the products?
They react with alcohols to make esters.
Why is vinegar an aqueous solution?
The main acid in vinegar is ethanoic acid which is too concentrated when its pure and is extremely corrosive (would kill you).
How can ethanol be made into ethanoic acid?
React it with oxygen using chemical oxidising agents or by the action of microbes.
C2H5OH + O2➡️CH3COOH + H2O.
Why do many perfumes contain ethanol?
It is a solvent so when mixed with water it evaporates easily.
Why do carboxylic acids have properties similiar to all other acids?
They produce H+ (hydrogen) ions in aqueous solutions.
What two ingredients must be combined to make an ester and how?
An alcohol and carboxylic acid with an acid catalyst.
Why is ester formation a condensation reaction?
Because it creates water as a by-product.
Name a common ester.
Describe some uses of esters, why are their properties suited to each?
Flavourings and perfumes because they are volatile compounds and have distinctive smells.
What is a strong acid?
An acid that ionises completely in aqueous solutions.
What is a weak acid?
An acid which does not ionise completely in aqueous solutions.
E.g: CH3COOH⇌CH3COOH + H+.
Why is it important to review our use of organic chemicals?
Advantages and disadvantages may change over time as resources are used up or there are new developments or new research.
What is the common functional group of all esters?