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short summaries of research studies that have appeared in selected journals
-helps researcher determine whether the article contains the info they are seeking
-most are transitioning to electronic/online formats


Electronic databases

provide preferred alternative to manually seraching indexes or abstracts
-has a general subject area and provides access vai internet
-faster and enable user to link sev comncepts together to provide focus for a search



integratred netowrk of computers that spans the entire world; can transfer data to one another via phone lines, microwaves, fiber optics and satellites
-access info on the web


World Wide Web (WWW)

interactive info delivery service that includes a repository of resources about almost any subject imaginable including health
-documents are related by subject area and linked together, thus creating a web


Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)

web addresses
-unique identifiers for a location on global internet composed of internet access protocol, the location and file


Search engine

locating info on internet
-allows you to type in the name of the topic you want to find info about and after a few seconds it identifies and lists multiple sites relate to that topic


(“open access” journals)

journals available to reader online w/o restriction to cost, membership or legal barriers with the exception that the reader must be able to access the internet
-article is copyright but geenreally can be used more liberally than articles w/ more traditional copyrights


refereed or Peer reviewed journal

journal that publsihes original manuscripts only after they have been read by a panel of experts in the field (referees) and recommended for publication



references artilces from joournal,s boks, and reports pertaining to topics that fall under the subject headings for whickh the index was created.
-one index is not all-encompassing for all subjects


Government documents

range from official documents ((laws, court decisions, regaords of congressional actions) to the results of gov-sponsored technical and scientific studies (obesity, exercsie, water treament0
-organized and shelved according to superintendted of documents (SuDocs) numbers; uses colon (A1:1)



used to access inof on web
-google, safari, internet exploroer


Popular press publications

most difficult to check for credibility
-range from weekly summary-type magsazines (Time, newsweek), regular articles in newpapers, newspapre supplements (parade) to monthly magazines (reader's digest) and tabloids
-may contain primary source of info (interview) but off are secondary sources
-often articles in the pop press include opinions or editorials that express bias of author or the editor of the publication; should be heavily scrutinized



hypertext transfer protocol

Electronic document text that is connected (hyperlinked) to the other chunks of text (or graphical elements) to which the reader or user is transferred by a mouse click.

protocol for exchanging hypertext documents btwn sites on web http://


primary popular press sources and example

published studies or eyewitness accounts written by the ppl who actually conducted the experiments or observed the events in question
-usually published by refereed journals
ex: reserach articles written by the researchers; personal records ( autobiogrpahies); podcasts or video/aduio recordings or actual lectures; speeches, debates, or evenst; offical records of leg sessions or minutes of community meetings; newspaper eyewitness accounts and annual reports


secondary sources

usually written by someon who was not presenta t the event or didnt particiapate as part of the study team
-provide summary of sev related studies or chronical a history or sequence of events
-may also provide editorial comments or alternative interpretations of the study or even
-often provid bibliography of primary resources
-ex: journal review articles, editorials, and non-eyewitness accounts of events occuring in the community, region or nation
-those found in a refereed journal are articles summarizing result of sev stuides, editorials, or positions deemed important enough (by a panel of expert reviewers) to be interesintg and useful to those who read the journal


tertiary sources

contain info that has been distilled and collected from primary and secondary sources

ex: handbooks, info pamphlets/brochures form gov orgs, newletters, encylopedias fact books, dictionaries, abstracts, and other ref tools

info accepted as fact by scientific community


How do an article abstract and an article summary differ in content?

abstracts are short (150-200 words) and written to identify the purpose of the research, study questions, methods used, an d1-2 major findings

summaries may be 2-3 pgs and include all of the elements of hte abstract; meant to reveal any secondary findings, to describe study limitations and to provide a more detailed review of the researcher's conclusions and recommendations from viewpoint of sumarry's author


What are the questions you should ask yourself when critiquing or critically reviewing a research journal article?

1) were the goals/aims fo the study defined in a clear manner?
2) were the research questions/hypothese clearly stated/
3) was the description of the subjects clear? did the article state how the subjects were recruited?
4) were the design and location of the study described clearly?
5) were the data collection instruments described?
6) were reliability and validity reported for the instruments?
7) did the results directly address the resaeach questions or hypothese?
8) were the conclusions reasonable in light of the research design and data anaylses performed?
9) were the findings extrapolated to a pop that is similar to the pop studied?
10) were the study implications meaningful to the pop you serve?


What are the differences between the questions asked when evaluating a primary research article and those asked when
evaluating a secondary source or popular press article?

general questions
1) what are the author's qualification? does the persona have an academic degree in the field being written about?
2) what is the studyle of presentation? look for healht info writen in a scientific style of wriitng, not a style that uses generalities or testimonials
3) are references included? be aware when someone is writing about another perosn's research because that individ may be interpeteing the results in a diff way than the author did
4) what is the purpose of the publication? be aware of of info that contain ads
5) what is the reputaion of the publication? is it refereed? prof journals > popular press pub
6) is info new? info must be validation overtime

. Author and Audience:

· Who wrote the text (or created the artifact) and what is the author/creator's place in society? If the person is not well known, try to get clues from the text/artifact itself.

· Why do you think the author wrote it? How "neutral" is the text; how much does the author have a stake in you reading it, i.e., does the author have an "ax to grind" which might render the text unreliable? What evidence (in the text or artifact) tells you this? People generally do not go to the trouble to record their thoughts unless they have a purpose or design; and the credible author acknowledges and expresses those values or biases so that they may be accounted for in the text.

· What is the intended audience of the text or artifact? How does the text reveal the targetted audience?

2. Logic:

· What is the author's thesis? How does the creator construct the artifact? What is the strategy for accomplishing a particular goal? Do you think the strategy is effective for the intended audience? Cite specific examples.

· What arguments or concerns does the author imply that are not clearly stated? Explain what you think this position may be and why you think it.

3. Frame of Reference:

· How do the ideas and values in the source differ from the ideas and values of our age? Give specific examples of differences between your frame of reference and that of the author or creator -- either as an individual or as a member of a cultural group.

· What assumptions do we as readers bring to bear on this text? See if you can find portions of the text which we might find objectionable, but which contemporaries might have found acceptable.

4. Evaluating Truth Content:

· How might this text support one of the arguments found in a historical secondary source? Choose a paragraph anywhere in a secondary source you've read, state where this text might be an appropriate footnote (give a full citation), and explain why.

· Offer one example of a historical "fact" (something that is indisputable or generally acknowledged as true) that we can learn from this text (this need not be the author's exact words).

5. Relation to Other Sources:

· Compare and contrast the source with another primary source from the same time period. What major similarities? What major differences appear in them?

· Which do you find more reliable and credible? Reliability refers to the consistency of the author's account of the truth. A reliable text displays a pattern of verifiable truth-telling that tends to make the reader trust that the rest of the text is true also. Your task as a historian is to make and justify decisions about the relative veracity of historical texts and portions of them.

. Structure: First read and think about the title -- what does it promise for the book or article? Then, if you have a book in hand, look at the table of contents: this is the "menu" that reveals the structure of the work. You can use this as your outline for your notes or create your own brief outline.

2. Thesis: Always read a secondary source from the outside in: read a book's foreword and introduction (or the article's first paragraph or two); then read the conclusion or epilogue. Ask yourself what the author's thesis might be and check it against your outline to see how the argument has been structured.

3. Argument: Continue to read the source from the outside in. For a book, quickly read the first and last paragraph of each chapter to get a good idea of the themes and arguments. Then skim through the chapters, taking cues as to which paragraphs are most important from their topic sentences. It is up to you to judge which passages are more important based on what you know so far about the book's themes and arguments. Highlight passages that seem to be especially relevant by placing them on notecards or making margin notes. Your notations should include your reactions to those passages: is it a good piece of evidence for the author's argument or is a particular statement valid or credible? The idea here is to evaluate the logic of the argument and the base of resources on which the author relies.

4. Resources: Read the footnotes! They are the nuts and bolts of history writing. When you come across a particularly interesting or controversial passage, watch to see what is cited. What primary sources has the historian used? Have they been used effectively? Are her sources credible or reliable? How does the use of the sources influence the kinds of arguments made? What other sources might have been used?

5. Motives: Why did the author write the book? Find out who the author is/was and the context in which she or he wrote the book. What political and cultural institutions or events might have had an impact on the author's reason for writing this source? What ongoing historiographical discussion (e.g., a hot topic at a history conference, in a journal or listserv) do you think this source is contributing to?


What advantage might the information from a government document have over another source on the same topic?

can show officail documents and results of gov-sponsored technical and scientific studies; contain a storehouse of valuable and current info and should not be overlooked when seeking info on a helath topic of interest


Most commonly used journals in the field of health education/promotion (types of information you would find in each)

pg 293-4 too much info


How does one go about evaluating information retrieved from the Internet?

currency: timeliness of info; is it new? revised? updated?

relevance: importance of info for your needs
-does it relate to topic
-who is intended audience

authority: source of info
-author, publisher, source, sponsor
-credientials and organizaitonal affiliations
-qualifications; contact info

accuracy: reliability, truthfulness and correcteness of content
-whe does info come from?
-is info suppported by evidence?
-has info been reveiwed or refereed?

purpose: reason the info exists
-purpose of info?
-are intentions or pupose clear?
-is info fact, opinion, or prograganda?
-obejective and impartial?


Which of the following choices accurately describes a primary source?
A. Usually written by someone who was not present at the event or did not participate as part of the study team
B. Published studies or eyewitness accounts written by the people who actually conducted the experiments or observed the events in question
C. Examples of this source would include handbooks, informational pamphlets, or brochures from governmental organization
D. Contain information that has been distilled and collected from the two other types of sources
E. Examples of this source would include journal review articles, editorials, and non-eyewitness accounts of events occurring in the community, region, or nation



The methodology section of a research article usually includes a description of all of the following except
A. The research design used
B. The subjects who took part in the research
C. The results of the statistical procedures used in analyzing the data
D. The instruments used to gather the information necessary to answer the research questions
E. The administrative procedures involved in conducting the research, such as the methods used to select the subject(s), gather the data, or protect the rights of the subject(s)



The results section in a research article provides a forum for the researcher to interpret the conclusions and meanings and to comment on the implications of the data analyses



Which of the following is NOT an example for a primary source?

A. Research article written by the researcher

B. Autobiography

C. Podcasts

D. Handbooks

E. Video lecture of the speakers’ own work



Which description best fits the following journal: The Health Educator: The Journal of Eta Sigma Gamma?

A. Focuses on the ethical, social, legal, moral, economic, and religious tenets of health policy and health decisions.

B. A journal that publishes articles devoted to the practical application of health promotion and education in a variety of settings

C. The only journal written by college health professionals for college health professionals.

D. An all-inclusive journal, with articles relating to the practice, teaching, and research of community health



Which type of information source is the most difficult to check for credibility?

popular press publications


Which of the following presents the components of a research article in correct order?

abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussions


It is often beneficial to be able to restate study findings and limitations in one's own words when trying to become a critical consumer of scientific and nonscientific literature.



Primary sources of date or information are non published studies or eyewitness accounts written by the people who actually conducted the experiments or observed the events in question.



A ­_______ is an analogous to a combination of a cover and a table of contents in a book in that it names the site and directs the user to a list of information options available within the site.

Home page
World Wide Web
Uniform Resource Locators
Search Engine



Autobiographies, podcasts, and video/audio recordings are all examples of

Primary Sources


Which of the following is an example of a primary source?
Review articles



True or False, ScienceDirect is one of the largest full-text scientific databases in the world covering physical sciences, life sciences, health sciences, and engineering material.



Which of the following journals is published bimonthly and features health policy-related articles of national concern or interest?
Journal of School Health
Health Affairs
The Hastings Center Report
Journal of Health Communication
Health Education Research

Health Affairs