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Flashcards in C9 Terms Deck (45)
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1

Caloric theory

Heat was an invisible liquid.

2

Internal energy

The speed of the particles in a system.

3

Stirling engine

It is a completely enclosed piston engine containing a working gas that is transferred back and forth between hot and cold heat exchangers.

4

Temperature

The average kinetic energy of a systems atoms and molecules.

5

Degree

A dimensional unit

6

Thermometer

An instrument used to measure temperature

7

Thermometer property

A property of mater to change predictability with a given temperature

8

Fiducial points

A fixed, precisely known, and easily reproducible temperature value.

9

Fahrenheit scale

180 degrees between the freezing point of water and it's boiling point

10

Celsius scale

Has 100 degrees between the freezing and boiling point of water

11

Triple point

The temperature and pressure at which solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance exist all at once

12

Kelvin scale

0 is where there is no energy in a substance and 273.15 is the freezing point of water

13

Thermal expansion

The distance between particles in a substance be come greater as temperature increases

14

Heat

The flow of thermal energy from one place to another

15

2nd law of thermal dynamics

The useful energy of a system tends to decrease and the entropy tends to increase

16

Entropy

A measure of a systems disorder

17

Conduction

Thermal energy moving from a warmer substance to a cooler substance

18

Thermal equilibrium

When the kinetic energy of two systems in the exact same

19

Convection

Thermal energy is carried from one location to anther by a fluid

20

Convection current

The fluids cycle path

21

Radiation

Electromagnetic energy moves in space

22

Insulator

A material that resist the flow of thermal energy

23

Heat capacity

The thermal energy in joules that an object must gain or lose to cause a temperature of 1 degree C

24

Specific heat

The heat capacity per gram of material

25

Calorimeter

Measures the transfer of thermal energy between objects

26

Latent heat of fusion

The amount of thermal energy exchanged per gram of material during melting or freezing

27

Latent heat of vaporization

The amount of thermal energy exchanged per gram of material during the vaporization or condensing period

28

What did scientists believe about caloric?

They believed it was a liquid.

29

Who first successfully challenged the caloric theory?

Benjamin Thompson.

30

What was the significance of Joule's discovery of the relationship between heat and mechanical work?

It did not fit the caloric theory.