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Flashcards in C9 Terms Deck (45):
1

Caloric theory

Heat was an invisible liquid.

2

Internal energy

The speed of the particles in a system.

3

Stirling engine

It is a completely enclosed piston engine containing a working gas that is transferred back and forth between hot and cold heat exchangers.

4

Temperature

The average kinetic energy of a systems atoms and molecules.

5

Degree

A dimensional unit

6

Thermometer

An instrument used to measure temperature

7

Thermometer property

A property of mater to change predictability with a given temperature

8

Fiducial points

A fixed, precisely known, and easily reproducible temperature value.

9

Fahrenheit scale

180 degrees between the freezing point of water and it's boiling point

10

Celsius scale

Has 100 degrees between the freezing and boiling point of water

11

Triple point

The temperature and pressure at which solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance exist all at once

12

Kelvin scale

0 is where there is no energy in a substance and 273.15 is the freezing point of water

13

Thermal expansion

The distance between particles in a substance be come greater as temperature increases

14

Heat

The flow of thermal energy from one place to another

15

2nd law of thermal dynamics

The useful energy of a system tends to decrease and the entropy tends to increase

16

Entropy

A measure of a systems disorder

17

Conduction

Thermal energy moving from a warmer substance to a cooler substance

18

Thermal equilibrium

When the kinetic energy of two systems in the exact same

19

Convection

Thermal energy is carried from one location to anther by a fluid

20

Convection current

The fluids cycle path

21

Radiation

Electromagnetic energy moves in space

22

Insulator

A material that resist the flow of thermal energy

23

Heat capacity

The thermal energy in joules that an object must gain or lose to cause a temperature of 1 degree C

24

Specific heat

The heat capacity per gram of material

25

Calorimeter

Measures the transfer of thermal energy between objects

26

Latent heat of fusion

The amount of thermal energy exchanged per gram of material during melting or freezing

27

Latent heat of vaporization

The amount of thermal energy exchanged per gram of material during the vaporization or condensing period

28

What did scientists believe about caloric?

They believed it was a liquid.

29

Who first successfully challenged the caloric theory?

Benjamin Thompson.

30

What was the significance of Joule's discovery of the relationship between heat and mechanical work?

It did not fit the caloric theory.

31

How much energy is required to raise the temperature of a gram of water 1 degree C?

4.18 N•m

32

What is the difference between the internal energy of an object and it's thermal energy?

Internal energy is the movement of particles with In a substance. It can't be measured. The thermal energy of a system is the some of all the kinetic energies and it's particles.

33

When can we measure thermal energy? What is actually measured?

When there is a change. The temperature.

34

What property of a thermometer allows it to indicate temperature? Name two examples.

By exploiting the thermometric property, and the average kinetic energy of the systems atoms and molecules

35

What three properties must a fiducial point have? Name the fiducial points for the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales

Fixed, precisely know, and easily reproducible. F. The freezing point of salt water and ice, and the blood of a healthy man. C. The freezing point of water and the boiling point of water

36

What is one major advantage of the Celsius scale over the Fahrenheit scale? What major disadvantages do both scales have?

It's convince and decimal basis. They both have negative values

37

How does the Kelvin scale resolve the problem noted in question4

It does not have negative values

38

State the temperature of the fiducial point(s) of the Kelvin scale. What defines the Kelvin scale'a fiducial point(s)?

273.16 the scientists set it.

39

Name three ways temperature changes affect a materials properties.

Thermal expansion, Electrical resistance, and Viscosity

40

Discuss the difference between thermal energy and heat.

Heat is the flow of thermal energy from one place to anther and thermal energy is the sum of all the kinetic energies of a systems particles

41

Describe the three ways thermal energy can be transferred.

Conduction (the flow of energy between two touching objects). Convention (energy is carried by a fluid from one place to anther). Radiation (electromagnetic energy moves in space).

42

State two ways that the arrangement of atoms and the bonding between atoms of a material can influence its insulating ability.

The atoms of good conductors are bonded closely together and have many loose electrons and poor conductors have the opposite

43

Compare and contrast heat capacity and specific heat capacity.

Heat comps city is the amount of energy exchanged to raise or lower the temperature if Abe object 1 degrees C and specific heat is the amount of energy exchanged to raise or lower the temperature of 1 gram of a substance

44

How much thermal energy must be lost by a gram of water at 0 C to freeze to a gram of ice? What is this quantity of heat called?

333J. The latent heat of fusion

45

How much thermal energy must a gram of water at 100 C gain to vaporize to a gram of steam at 100 C? What is this quantity of heat called?

2256J the latent heat of vaporization