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Flashcards in C21 Terms Deck (28):
1

hydronium ion

The cation formed by the self ionization of water

2

hydroxide ion

The anion formed by the self ionization of water.

3

dynamic equilibrium

The state of any two-way process In which the concentration of particles remain relatively constant but the identity of the individual particles constantly changes.

4

acid

Any substance that donates hydrogen ions.

5

base

Any substance that accepts hydrogen ions.

6

Arrhenius model

A model of acids and bases in which acid compounds form hydronium ions in aqueous solutions and bases form hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions.

7

Bronsted-Lowry model

A model of acids and bases that defines acidity and alkalinity based on hydrogen ion transfer. Acids donate hydrogen ions and bases accept hydrogen ions.

8

monoprotic acid

An acid that can donate only one hydrogen atom

9

polyprotic acid

An acid of three or more atoms

10

conjugate base

The proton acceptor produced after a Brønsted-Lowry acid donates a proton.

11

conjugate acid

The proton acceptor produced after a Brønsted-Lowry acid donates a proton

12

salt

Any ionic compound that could be produced by the combination of a base cation and an acid anion in a neutralization reaction.

13

neutralization reaction

A reaction between an acid and a base. In aqueous solutions the products are a salt and water.

14

pH scale

A scale that indicates the acidity of a solution.

15

alkaline

Having a pH value greater than 7

16

pH indicator

Any substance that turns a specific color in a solution with a particular pH.

17

pH meter

An instrument designed to measure the pH of a solution.

18

Describe how water molecules can hydrate various substances.

They smash and wedge the other molecules off of the other substance and then surround them.

19

Describe the two ionization reactions that occur in pure water.

In the first one a hydrogen atom is transferred to a water molecule. In the second the exact opposite happens.

20

Does a reaction involving an acid and a base have to take place in a water environment?

No

21

State the general properties of water-soluble acids discussed in this section.

Idk

22

What class of compounds are salts?

Ionic compounds.

23

In water solutions what occurs in every neutralization reaction?

Idk

24

How do you know when an insoluble salt is formed by an acid base neutralization?

You don't

25

What is a sting acid? Why is an acids strength not related to its concentration?

An acid with a low pH. Because the strength can vary.

26

In what two ways may various compounds act as strong bases?

They can absorb electrons. Idk.

27

How is the acidity or alkalinity of a solution measure?

With the pH scale.

28

What are two different ways to measure the pH of a solution?

With a pH meter and a pH indicator.