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Module 9: Mali: GI > CA random facts! > Flashcards

Flashcards in CA random facts! Deck (75):
1

GERD

 

when does the person specifically get pain?

what 2 things make it worse? 

three things to avoid?

AFTER FATTY MEALS!!

 

lying down and bending over make it worse

 

avoid:

1. chocolate

2. alcohol

3. fatty meals

 

2

describe the pain see in PUD?

4

gnawing, burning achiing

HUNGER LIKE

3

what is the most common type of stomach cancer?

what doesn't make it better?/

who in?

adenocarcinoma 90-95%

 

not relieved by food to antacids

 

50s-70s

4

acute appendicitis

 

where is the pain?

2 worse?

what if it stops?

progression?

periumbilical pain followed by lower right quadrant pain

 

worse:

1. movement

2. cough

 

if subsides temporairly suspect perforation of appendix

 

SXS:

nause vomiting followed by onset of pain and low fever

5

cholecystitis

 

where is the pain?

2 things make it worse

right upper quadrant pain that may radiate to right scular area

 

worse:

1. jarring

2. deep breathing

 

 

6

biliary colic

 

where it the pain?

pain? 

pt might be....

right upper quadrant that radiates to right scapula and shoulder

 

NOT COLICKY

 

 

RESTLESSNES

7

acute pancreatitis

 

where is the pain?

1 improvement?

2 things in hx?

epigastric may radiate to back

 

improves: leaing forward to truck flexed

 

**may see hx of alcohol abuse or gallstones**

8

acute diverticulitis

 

where?

pain type?

progression?

left lower quadrant

 

crampy pain to steady

 

gradual onset

9

acute bowel obstruction

 

2 causes?

location of pain?

2 things that can happen in SI?

causes;

1. adhesions or herias SMALL INTESTINE, periumbicial pain

2. cancer or diverticulis: COLON, periumbicial at first then diffuse

 

 

these can happen in SMALL INTESTING OBSTRUCTION

**vomiting of bile and mucous=high obstruction

 

vomiting of feces=low obstruction**

10

what does oropharyngeal dysphagia mean?

 

what is this?

can cause?

3 causes of this?

motor disorders affecting the pharyngeal muscles

 

aspiration into the lungs or nose with attempt to swallow

 

stroke

bulbar palsy

neuromuscular dxs

11

esophageal dysphagia is...

mechanical narrowing

12

explain the dysphagia you would see with someone who has esophageal dysphagia from esophageal cancer?

starts with slids and progresses to liquids

13

explain the pain that you would see with esphageal spasm?

what can make it better?

chest pain that minics angina pectoris or MI and lasts minutes to hours

 

***NITRO CAN IMPROVE THIS**

14

what can you do to relieve the sxs associated with schleroderma 

or 

achalasia?

4

1. repeated swallowing 

2. straightening the back

3. raising arms

4. valsalva maneuver straining down against closed glottis

15

what is a false expectation when it comes to bowel habits?

expectations of regularity

16

what are the requirements for dxing irritable bowel syndrome?

3/3

symptoms for 6 months

pain for 3 months

and 2 of 3:

1. improvement with defecation

2. onset with change in stool frequency

3. change in stool form and appearance

17

what are two manifestations you might see with rectal cancer?

1. tenesmus

2. pencil shaped stool!!

18

who is fecal impaction common in?

3

debilitated, bedridden and elderly patients

19

what might the stool look like in an intussusception?

currant jelly stools

RED WITH MUCOUS

20

what can painful anal lesions cause?

spasm of the external spincter and involuntary inhibition of the defecation reflex

21

what are the 3 medications that can cause constapation?

1. opoids

2. anticholinergics

3. antacids with calcium or aluminum

22

what are 3 conditions that can neurological disorders that lead to constapation?

1. spinal cord injuries

2. multiple sclerosis

3. hirschsprungs disease

23

what are three metabolic conditions that can lead to constapation?

1. pregnany

2. hpothyroidism

3. hypercalemia

24

what is the difference between the stool  and sxs of secretory infection and inflammatory infection?

secretory-watery w/o blood pus or mucous temp normal

 

inflammatory-watery/loose with blood, pus, or mucous urgency, tenemus, fever

25

what are 7 bacteria that cause secretory infection?

1. s aureus

2. b cereus

3. c. perfringens

4. e. coli

5. vibrio

6. giardia lamblia

7. rotavirus

26

what type of bacteria typically cause secretory infection?

those that make bacterial toxins

27

what are 5 bacteria that typically cause inflammatory diarrhea?

1. salmonella

2. shigella

3. campylobacter

4. e.coli

5. c.diff

28

irritable bowel syndrome

 

3 characteristics of the pain

worse in the morning, rare at night

 

pain relieved with defecation

29

who is cancer of the sigmoid colon common in?

those over 55

30

what are people with ulcerative collitis at increased risk for?

colon cancer

31

crohns disease

 

2 places this occurs

characteristic of diarreah

what group of people more prevalent in

 

 

terminal ileum

proximal colon

**diarreah can awaken patient in night**

 

MORE COMMON IN PEOPLE OF JEWISH DESCENT

32

malabsorption syndrome

 

describe the stool

6

bulky, soft, yellow to gray

greasy oily and frothy

**foul smelling**

floats in toilet

33

vitamin K deficiencies cause

bleeding

34

vitamin D deficiciencies can cause 

fractures

35

vitamin B deficiencies can cause...

glottitis

36

a protein deficiency can cause 

edema

37

people with lactose intolerance lack...

lactase and have an issue after drinking milk or milk products

38

what are the 3 racial groups particullary influenced by lactose intolerance?

african americans

asians

native americans

39

melena qualifications

at least 60 mL of blood into gastrointestinal tract usually from  esophagus, stomach, duodenum

40

when would you typically get pain after eating with duodenal ulcer?

2-3 hours later

41

what is the main cause of esophageal or gastric varices?

cirrhosis of the liver

42

what is mallory- weiss tear attributed to?

retching and vomiting after  recent ingestion of alcohol

43

what are 3 things that can cause a black stool that is negative for occult?

1. iron

2. bismuth salts

3. licorice

44

what is melena?

black tarry stool

45

what is hematochezia

red blood in the stool originating form the colon, rectum, and anus

46

hemmoroids and anal fissure

 

3 ways you might see the blood

blood on the toilet paper  or on surface of stool or dripping into the toilet

47

what does the ingestion of beets do you the urine and stool? why?

turns in pink and turns the stool reddish from poor metabolism of betacyanin

48

what is a umbilical hernia? in who?

protrusion thought defective unmilcal ring MC in infants

49

incesional hernia

protrusion through an opertive scar

50

what is an epigastric hernia?

when is it seen the best?

small midline protrusion though a defect in the linea alba between the xiphoid and umbilicus

 

**seen better with patients head and shoulders raised**

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51

diastasis recti

 

what is this?

when does it occur?

3 things common in?

separation of the two rectus abdominis mucles through which the abdominal contents for a midline ridge when the patient raises head and shoudlers

 

common in:

1. pregancy

2. obesity

3. chronic lung disease

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52

lipoma

 

what do they feel/look like?

soft and often lobulated

 

**if you push down on it, it likely will slip out from underneath**

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53

what is a pannus?

what can happen to the umbilicus?

apron of fatty tissue

umbilicus amy be sunken

54

abdominal tumor

 

explain the percussion pattern common with this? why? 

dullness over the abdominen, typmpani above 

 

**this is because the tumor displaces the air upwars**

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55

ascitic fluid

 

what does this person show?

what is characteristic of the pattern?

goes to the lowest point in the abdomen that causes bulging flanks taht are dull to precussion

 

when person terns on their side, detect a fluid shift

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56

increased bowel sounds indicated...2

diarreah

early intestinal obstruction

57

decreased bowel obstruction indicates...2

adynamic ileus

peritonitis

58

how long must you listen before determining there is no bowel sounds?

2 minutes

59

what do high pitched tinkling sounds in the bowel suggest?

intestinal fluid and air under tension in dilated bowel

60

what do rushes of high-pitched sounds with cramping indicate?

intestinal obstruction

61

a hepatic bruit suggests...2

carcinoma of the liver or alcholic hepatitis

62

arterial bruits with both systolic and diastolic compents suggest....

partial occlusion of the aorta or large arteries

63

what does a venous hum indicate? ex?

increased collateral circulation between the portal and systemic venous system

 

seen in hepatic cirrhosis

64

where do you hear a venoux hum?

epigastic and umbical

 

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65

what is a friction rub and what does it indicate?

grating sound with repiratory variation

 

indicates inflammation of the peritoneal surface of an organ

66

where are two places you might hear a friction rub?

hepatic and splenic

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67

if you hear a systolic bruit and hepatic friction rub what should you suspect?

carcinoma of the liver

68

acute salpingitis

 

what are the sxs?

where does it occur?

motion of the uterus causes pain

(inflammation of fallopian tubes)

 

just above the inguinal ligaments

69

where do you look for acute cholecystisits?

sign?

upper right quadrant

murphys sign

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70

where does pain from acute pancreatitis occur?

may also have?

EPIGASTRIC REGION

CAN HAVE REBOUND TENDERNESS

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71

where does the pain from acute apendicitis occur?

specifically?

sign?

RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT

****BETWEEN LINE JOINING UMBILICUS AND ACIS****

MCBURNEYS POINT

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72

where does diverticularits occur?

lower left quandrant

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73

explain a normal variation of liver shape and who might you find this in?

riedels love which means that the liver is elongated but no change in volume or size

 

typically in lanky people!! stretches it out!!

 

**this makes the liver palpable since it points towards the iliac**

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74

what conditions can produce a smooth, large liver?

2 subcategories

3 ex

1 ex

1. NONTENDER EDGE

cirrhosis

amyloidosis

lympoma

 

2. TENDER EDGE

venous congestion in right heart failure

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75

what does a enlarged, hard, irregular edge of liver suggest?

hepatocellular carincome

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