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Module 9: Mali: GI > Pharm lectures > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm lectures Deck (87):
1

what are 6 things that can cause diarrhea?

1. inflammation
2. excess secretion
3. decreased absorption
4. infection
5. altered bacterial content
6. rapid transit (bowel, stimulants/drug SE)

2

name the four places that somatostatin is released?

1. paracrine cells
2. D cells
3. enteric nerve cells
4. hypothalamus

3

what are the 5 functions of somatostatin?

1. inhibits like every GI prodigestive enzyme
2. inhibits intestinal fluid and pancreatic secretions
3. slows GI motility and gallbladder contraction
4. vascular smooth muscle contractor, reducing blood flow
5. inhibits release of anterior pituitary hormones

4

what anti-diarrheal do you not want to use in someone who has obstruction, IBD, or IBS?

Loperamide

5

what anti-diarrheal is an opoid that isn't used for analgesia? why?

loperamide


since doesn't cross the blood brain barrier, despite being an opiod

6

what are the two anti-diarrheal drugs that can absorb medications and decrease their effectiveness?

1. koalin-pectin
2. dietary fiber (metamucil, citrucel, fibercon)

7

what is the name of the anti-diarrheal that is used for both diarreah or constipatation depending on the dose?

dietary fiber (metamucil, citrucel, fibercon)

8

A dietary fiber in high dose is used to treat...

diarreah

9

a dietary fiber in a low dose is used to treat...

constipation

10

is dietary systemicaly absorbed?

NO!...so has very little interactions with medications

11

what can the anti-diarrheal Octreotide cause?

Gallstones in 50% with long term use

12

explain what happens with the anti-diarreal octreotide when giving at high or low doses?

low dose=increase motility
higher dose=decrease motility

13

what two anti-inflammatory drugs are released in the colon?

sulfasalazine
osalazine

14

what is the name of the PH sensitive anti-inflammatory drug?

mesalamine PH sensitive release

15

what is the antiinflammatory drug that has delayed release capsules?

mesalamine delayed release capsules...slighting in the stomache mostly in the intestines

16

Chrons disease is thought to come from and increase in what cells? causing an increase in what 5 things?

TH1 cells

increase in INF-y, TNFalpha, IL1 IL6, IL12

17

it is thought that ulcerative collitis comes form atypical what cells? which increase the production of what 3 things?

atypical TH2 cells

increased production of IL1, IL6, and TNFalpha

18

what are the two anti-inflammatoires you shouldn't use if the patient has a sulfa allergi?

1. mesalamine or 5-ASA

2. sulfasalazine

19

what is sulfazalasine a combination of? 2

1. 5-ASA
2. sulfapyridine

20

what is the name of the drug that has a oral, enema, and rectal supplement that is an antiinflammatory?

mesalamine or 5-ASA

21

what do you need to do for both the 5-ASA drugs including mesalamine and sulfasalazine?

supplement with folic acid!! these drugs inhibit folic acid absorption

22

explain how sulfazalazine makes it to the colon before become activated?

bacteria in the colon cleave the inactive sulfasalazine into sulfapyridine and active 5-ASA

23

what is the name of the drug that is restricted by FDA programs for antiinflammatory drugs? why?

natalizumab

it can cause multifocal leukoencephalopathy

24

what is gallstone medication name? what is it helpful for?

ursodiol


helpful in pt that doesn't qualify for surgery for relief

25

what is the name of the laxitive stimulate we will see most commonly in primary care?

senokot

26

what is the MOA Of senokot?

stimulates enterocytes, enteric neuros, so GI SM makes low grade inflammation causing fluid production that stimulates the motility

27

when should senokot not be used?

if the patient has a bowel obstruction

28

what do you need to keep in mind when giving someone lactulose? what should it not be used with?

oral abx may make it less effective because it prevents the conversion of NH3 to NH4 so not as much gets trapped in the gut for excretion with the bowels

29

when thinking of octeotide...what should you think of it txing?

great for GI bleeds especially esophageal varices

30

what does interferon and pegylated interferon do?

increase the halflife of interferons

31

what are two SE of interferon and peglated interferon?

1. FLU LIKE SYMPTOMS
2. DEPRESSION

32

what does interferon and peglated interferon used to tx?

hep B
hep C

33

what abx is commonly used to tx travelers diarreah?

ofloxacin

34

what is abx used to tx travelers diarreah?

ofloxacin

35

what is lamivudine used to tx?

HBV

36

what is the goal of lamivudine?

used to SUPPRESS HBV replication by inhibiting HBV DNA polymerase

37

when can a person with HBV develop resistance to lamivudine?

70% develop resistance within 5 years

38

what is the goal of ribavirin?

HCV ERADICATION!!!

39

what does a woman need to do if being txed with ribavirin?

test for pregnancy monthly

40

what is ribavirin usually used in combination with?

PEG INTERFERON

41

is the hepatitis vaccine pre or post exposure?

BOTH

42

is there a combination hep A and hep B vaccine?

YES! twinnix!! has protection against both!

43

what can the hepatitis vaccine B vaccine cause?

relapse of MS

44

of the two vaccines, hep A and B, which one is inactivated and which one is recombinant?

HEP A is inactivated


HEP B is recombinant

45

what are the 3 functions of interferons which PEG interferon uses?

1. ANTIVIRAL-inhibts all phases of viral infiltration

2. IMMUNOMODULARY-ehance expression of MHC to macrophages

3. VIRAL ANTIPROLIFERATION: increases proliferation of cytotoxic T cells

46

what are the 3 enzymes that are included in the pancreatic supplement pacrealipase?

lipase, amylase, protease

47

what is the initial dosing for pancrealipase?

30,000

48

when do you give the pancrealipase?

dose with meals and before bed

49

why is pancrealipase different than the other enzyme replacement? so what must you do?

this is the only one that isn't enteric coated so must dose with a PPI

50

what are the three shapes that the pancrealipase comes in?

pancrelipase= beads

creon=microspheres

pacrease=microtablets

51

of the pancreatic replacements, which can be sprinkled on food?

croen, the microspheres

52

what is merperidine synthetic opoid apporoved for? 2

peri-op short term and acute pancreaittis

53

PPIs are ____

PRODRUGS

54

how many times more do PPIs concentrat in the parietal cells?

1000x

55

what happens to the bioavalibility of PPIs when they are taken with food?

decrease by 50%

56

when should you take PPIs?

on empty stomach 1 hour before meals so the max number of pumps operating get the activity

57

how long does the effects of PPIs work?

less than 24 hours

58

how many days does it take to get full acid inhibition with a PPI?

3-4 days

59

what do you need to do when taking a PPI and you want to stop the medication?

down titrate to prevent full acid rebound

60

what can the long term use of PPIs cause, esp in elderly?

increase the risk of hip fracture

61

by what percent does omeprazole PPI decrease gastric acid secretion?

90-98% so very effective!!!

62

what is the drug class for vancomycin?

glycopeptide abx

63

what can vancomycin do when taking orally?

bitter taste

64

what do you need to be cautious of when giving vancomycin IV?

RED MAN SYNDROME!!!! causes red neck esp....caused by infusing too quickly so stop and restart at a lower rate

65

what are the two important indiactions of vanco for this module?

PSEUDOMEMBRANEOUS COLLITIS
MRSA

66

what is the 3 drug regimen used to tx h. pylori?

omeprazole
amoxicillin
clarithromycin

67

what is the 4 drug reimen used to tx H. pylori?

omeprazole
metronidazole
tetracycline
bismuth

68

what is the function of the PPI in the combination regiments used to treat H. pylori

it raises the PH of the stomach and therefore lowers the antibiotic MIC needed to H. pylori eradication

69

what is restitution?

where cells migrate to areas of injury in the lining to seal small erosions

70

what do mucosal prostaglandins stimulate?

mucous and bicarb secretion

71

what drug on our drug tables is a abortifactant that increases uterine contractions?

misoprostol

72

what drug do you absolutely not want to use in pregnancy because it is used for abortions?

misoprostol

73

what drug used for nausea is a transdermal patch that must be removed for MRI because it contains aluminum?

scopolamine

74

when is scopoloamine administered for nasuea/vertigo post op?

1 patch HS prior to surgery

75

when is scopolamine administered for motion sickness or nausea for motion sickness?

1 patch 4 h prior and every 72 hours

76

what is the phenothiazine that is EXTREMELY sedating?

promethazine

77

what is the name of the purified cannibis drug?

dronabinol

78

what is the drug class for dronabinol

cannaboids dopamine antagoinis (THC)

79

what are the two uses of dronabinol?

appetite stimulation
anti-emetic (chemo)

80

what is a SE experienced with dronabinol?

euphoria/dysphoria, better tolerated in younger people

81

what is the drug class for ondansetron? (zofran)

serotonin antagonists

82

what is the MOA of ondansetron? (zofran)

periphreal and CRTZ 5-HT3 receptor blockade

83

what is the indication for ondansetron? (zofran)

ONLY for
1. post op
2. radiation and chemotherapy induced

84

what is the indication for aprepitant?

prevention of chemo induced N/V

85

what is the drug class for aprepitant?

neuokinin-antagonist

86

what is the MOA of aprepitant?

blocks the central NK1 receptors

87

how effective is the combination of Neurokinin-1, serotonin antagoinsts, and corticosteroids at preventing N/V from chemo? what 3 drugs?

90% effecitve when used as combo

1. ondansetron
2. aprepitant
3. dexamethasone