Calcium Flashcards Preview

Electrolytes > Calcium > Flashcards

Flashcards in Calcium Deck (12)
Loading flashcards...
1

Why is calcium important?

*Muscle contraction
*Blood coagulation
*Activity of various enzymes
*Excitation of neutrons
*Hormones secretion

2

Where does the homeostasis of Ca occur?

*GIT, kidneys, skeleton
*Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
:mobilises Ca from bones
:induces synthesis of calcitrol
*Vit D3
:increase GI absorption

3

What does calcitrol do?

*acts on GIT to stimulate it to absorb Ca
*provides feedback to limit production of itself as well as PTH
*inhibits bone reabsorption and increases the amount of Ca excreted in urine

4

What test do you have to use for Hypercalcemia

*PTH and PTH-rp measurements
*Lymph node biopsies
*Bone marrow evaluation

5

What disease processes causes HyperCa?

*Acute or chronic renal failure
*Ostemyelitis
*Skeletal disorders
*Toxicities of over supplementation
*Rodenticide (Cholecalciferol)
*Toxic plants
*Hypoadrenocorticism
*Primary hyperparathyroidism
*Neoplasia
*Malignant processes
-Lymphosarcoma (most common)

6

What are the clinical signs of HyperCa?

*Early signs: PU/PD
*Anorexia, dehydration, Cardiac arrhythmia (Ca has direct inotropic and negative chronotropic effects on cardiac muscle and can cause calcification of the cardiac muscles) , Seizures (due to depressed neurotransmitters in muscles),

7

Tx for HyperCa

*IVF dilutes ca levels
*Loop diuretic if patient is hydrated
*CVPs and UOP must be monitored
*Corticosteroids after diagnosis is made to inhibit bone resorption and GI absorption of Ca
*Calcitonin lowers Ca levels rapidly
*Ca channel blocker
*GI decontamination
*If oliguria
:peritoneal dialysis
:Hemodialysis

8

HypoCa

*more common than HyperCa
*Serum Ca
:<8.0 mg/dL (Dogs)
:<7.0 mg/dL (Cats)

*Ionized Ca
: <1.25 (dogs
: <1.1 (Cats)
*Low albumin in serum = artificially low total Ca

9

What causes Hypocalcemia?

CRF
Eclampsia (puerperal tetany)
ARF
Acute pancreatitis
Tissue trauma
Rhabdomyolysis
Hypoparathyroidism (primary or secondary)
Ethylene glycol intoxication
Phosphate enemas
Post HCO3- administration
Hypomagnesemia
Repeated blood transfusions
Hypovitaminosis D
Sepsis / SIRs
Furosemide diuresis

10

What are the clinical signs of hypoCa?

*Increased neuromuscular activity due to increased cell membrane excitability
*Muscle tremors and fasiculations
Hyperexcitability
Restlessness
Tetany
Seizures
Hyperthermia
Panting
Anorexia
V and D

11

What are the ECG changes seen in HypoCa?

Prolonged QT interval

12

Treatment for hypoCa

*Administer parenteral Ca
*Calcium gluconate or calcium chloride should be given initially IV over 10-30 mins
-last about 1-12hours
*Vit D (if primary parathydroidism)