Calculus- a clinical perspective Flashcards Preview

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1

Define calculus

Mineralised plaque
alcifying or calcified deposits attached to the surfaces of teeth or other solid structures in the oral cavity

2

What are the 2 main categories calculus I split into?

1. Supragingival calculus
2. Subgingival calculus

3

Where is supra gingival calculus found?

Located coronal to the gingival margin

4

Where is supra gingival calculus mainly distributed?

Distributed adjacent to salivary duct openings

5

Where ares salivary duct openings found?

Lingual of lower anteriors
Buccal upper molar

6

Where is sub gingival plaque found?

Located apical to the gingival margin

7

Where is subgingival plaque mainly distributed?

It can be distributed anywhere in the mouth

8

Where d the calcium and phosphate minerals that calcify calculus come from?

They come from:
1. Saliva (supragingival calculus)
2. GCF (Subgingival calculus)

9

What type of crystals are found in supra gingival calculus?

1. Hydroxyapatite
2. Octacalcium phosphate
3. brushite (new supra)

10

What type of crystals are found in sub gingival calculus?

magnesium whitlockite

11

Describe the crystals fond in supra gingival calculus

Small needle shaped or large ribbon shaped crystals

12

Describe the crystals fond in sub gingival calculus

Small crystals

13

Name the 2 mechanisms by which calcification can occur

1. Epitactic
2. Booster

14

Where is does the mineral content for supra gingival calculus come from?

37% Minerals come from saliva by volume

15

Which minerals are found more in subgingival calculus than supra gingival?

Ca
Mg
F
Sr
Zn

16

Which minerals are found more in supragingival calculus than sub gingival?

Carbonate and Mg

17

Following a scale and polish how long may I take for supra gingival calculus to reform?

Can reform within days

18

Where is does the mineral content for sub gingival calculus come from?

58% mineral comes from GCF by volume

19

Describe the crystal growth within subgingival calculus

Tends to be heterogeneous nucleation and crystal growth

20

Following a scale and polish how long may I take for supra gingival calculus to reform?

Theres slower growth as there's fewer non calcified micro organisms

21

Why can supra gingival calculus being to reform within days of a scale and polish in comparison to subginigval calculus?

As supra gingival calculus has more non caclcifie micro organisms and more filamentous

22

What did Roberts-Harry's study show in regards to mineral composition in Indo-Pakistani adults?

Showed they had lower levels of sodium in apical than coral subgingical calculus
They also had lower levels of sodium ad magnesium in apical samples in comparison to Caucasian samples

23

What hypothesis did Roberts-Harry reach following their findings regarding ethnic variation in mineral composition

That decrease substitution go M fo calcium in Indo-pakistani adults. This will reduce the dissolution of Mg and make subgingival calculus more tenacious and difficult to remove

24

Describe the appearance of supra gingival calculus

Creamy white colour
(May be satin in smoker)

25

Describe the appearance of subgingival calculus

Darker may be brownish or black in colour

26

Describe the morphology of supra gingival calculus

It is amorphous

27

Describe the morphology of subgingival calculus

Can be in the form of:
1. Crusty, spy, noodle deposits
2. Ledge or ring formation
3. Thin, smooth venners
4. Finger and fern like formations
5. Islands of spots

28

List the 4 ways supragingival calculus can be diagnosed

1. Deposits will be LOCATED above the gingival margin and around the openings of the salary ducts
2.Look at the COLUR of the deposits
3. Calculus will feel rougher in comparison to plaque
4. If you air dry the area calculus will give a chalky appearance

29

List the ways we can diagnose subginigval calculus

1. Check the location (under the gingival margins)
2, deposit will be darker colour
3.Use a WHO probe
4. Sometimes you can seee subgingival calculus at gingival mrgins following recession loss
5. Ma be ablate see subgingival calculus in pocket s
6. The papilla may be dark re (check using WHO probe)
6. See if there is a shadow under the gingiva (check with a WHO probe)
7 Can use radiograph (but only visible if calculus has extended a to

30

Name the WHO probe we use to check for calculus

The WHO 621 probe