Cancer (Dr. Weir) Flashcards Preview

CMD Block 2 > Cancer (Dr. Weir) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer (Dr. Weir) Deck (23):
1

Many malignancies are caused or encouraged by mutations in:

oncogenes
tumor suppressor genes

2

Two inherited disorders predisposing to malignancies caused by mutations in tumor suppressor genes:

Li Fraumeni Syndrome and Cowden’s Syndrome

3

Cancer accelerated by a mutated c-kit oncogene:

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor

4

Mutations in EGFR and ALK can lead to:

some lung cancers

5

T/F: Usually, a single mutation is required to allow cells to overcome the body’s boundaries for cell growth.

F-multiple

6

How does identification of specific cancer sites improve treatment?

Use of genomic medicine, which targets the actual mutation

7

Development of medications for ________ _______ has improved trx for breast cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, chronic leukemias, skin cancers, and brain tumors.

specific targets

8

Hormone receptors are very important targets for patients with:

breast and prostate cancer

9

How do targeted treatments affect patient outcomes?

Rarely curative
--mutations may develop that allow the cancer to progress around the therapy
--other cellular pathways may increase in activity to bypass therapeutic effect

10

Usually encode growth- or division-promoting proteins

protooncogenes

11

Inhibit over-proliferation and over-accumulation

Tumor suppressor genes

12

PTEN mutation is associated with:

Cowden's disease

13

EGFR kinase mutations are associated with:

Lung cancer (with 50% of these in nonsmokers)

14

EML4-ALK is mutated in:

lung cancers

15

Most common brain neoplasms

gliomas

16

WHO Grades that are considered considered benign

I and II

17

WHO Grades that are considered considered malignant

III and IV

18

What do glioblastoma cells need to make in order to promote their growth?

VGEF (thus, this is a target for trx)

19

Inhibition of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase is used to treat:

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

20

Tamoxifen treats what type of breast cancer?

ER positive

21

Herceptin treats what type of breast cancer?

HER2 positive, prevents dimerization of receptor

22

B-Raf V600 mutation is associate with:

melanoma

23

Hedgehog inhibitors treat:

basal cell carcinoma