Cancer pathophysiology Flashcards
What is the difference between hyperplasia and dysplasia?
Hyperplasia is an increase in the number of normal appearing cells.
Dysplasia is cells that look abnormal but are not cancerous.
______ tumours are invasive and metastasise.
3 causes of cancer are?
What do tumour suppressors do?
What is the effect of inactive TS?
TS genes slow cell division, promote DNA repair and orchestrate apoptosis.
When they are inactive the result in cancer.
What is the difference between proto-oncogenes vs oncogenes.
Proto-oncogenes: a normal gene that regulates cell growth and differentiation.
Oncogene: A mutation that upregulates gene expression.
What is an example of a TS?
What are the genes that increase the risk of breast cancer?
What is an example of a carcinogen?
Asbestos, benzene, UV, H.pylori, HBV, HCV, HPV
How does cancer spread?
It crosses the basement membrane of the epithelium and invades other organs.
What are the major routes of metastasis?
- Via blood
- via lymphatic system
- seeding into body cavities
- surgical incision tracts.
What are signs of cachexia?
fever, anorexia, wasting, depression, fatigue. This is due to the body’s energy being absorbed by the tumour.
What is paraneoplastic endocrine disease?
Increase in secretion of hormones, cytokines from malignant tissue.
What local effects of a tumour?
Compression, obstruction, bleeding/ulceration
What are distant effects of a tumour?
Paraneoplastic syndrome, cachexia, pain.
What are the 4 treatment options for cancer?
What determines whether someone is eligible for surgery?
Absence of distant metastasis.
No local infiltration.