What is an erythrocyte?
What is the purpose of Haemoglobin?
To transport oxygen in the RBC.
What is haematocrit?
The ratio of RBC to total vol of blood.
What is a deficiency of Hb or RBC?
How can cancer cause anaemia?
Bone marrow infiltration leads to the suppression of RBC development.
How does pregnancy cause anaemia?
reduced haematocrit due to 50% increase in plasma volume.
What is erythropoitin?
A hormone produced by the kidneys that promotes RBC synthesis in the bone marrow.
How does renal disease cause anaemia?
Decreased production of erythropoietin.
How does B12 and folate deficiency cause anaemia?
Alters DNA synthesis.
What types of anaemia are caused by altered Hb synthesis?
Fe deficient anaemia and thalassemia.
True/False: Blood loss does not cause anaemia.
False. Blood loss, from trauma, menstruation, PPH can lead to anaemia.
What are the 4 types of anaemia?
- Iron deficiency Anaemia (IDA)
- Pernicious Anaemia (low B12)
- Folic Acid deficiency anaemia
What is the most common type of anaemia in women?
What role does iron (Fe) play in the blood?
Iron is an essential element for blood production and is found in haemoglobin. It is also found in muscle cells called myoglobin.
What is ferritin?
Iron that is stored in the body.
What are S/S of IDA?
fatigue, lethargy, SOB, mental confusion, memory loss, pallor, brittle nails, angular stomatitis, glossitis, increase in infections.
What causes pernicious anaemia?
The lack of IF (Intrinsic Factor), a gastric protein, prevents the absorption of B12. This leads to B12 deficiency which interferes with RBC production.
Autoimmune disorders, chronic atrophic gastritis are both causes of what type of anaemia?
What are the symptoms of pernicious anaemia?
Weakness, fatigue, GI issues, SOB, tachycardia, jaundice, paraesthesia.
How does a deficiency in folic acid affect RBC?
It produces large and immature RBC.
What does Folic acid deficiency do during pregnancy?
Causes neural tube defects, such as Encephalocele, anencephaly, spina bifida.
What is the daily dose of folic acid for women?
What is the condition that produces little to no Hb?
What is the anaemia that is an autosomal recessive condition?
What does little to no haemoglobin mean for red blood cells?
They are misshaped and ineffective.
What is cancer of the white blood cells?
What is the pathophysiology of Leukaemia?
The bone marrow makes abnormally large number of immature WBC. These are called BLASTS.
What are the results of Leukaemia?
- Neoplastic cells in peripheral blood.
- Suppression of other blood cells (RBC, platelets, WBC)
What can cause Leukemia?
High level radiation viruses, chemicals, genes
Overproduction of immature WBC (lymphoblast) is ____ lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)
Symptoms of ALL are?
anaemia, infection, bleeding. All caused by reduced blood cell production in the bone marrow.
What type of leukaemia is most common in children?
What is CALLA?
Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Antigens (CALLA) are on the surface of leukemic cells in >80% of cases.
The excessive build up of relatively mature (still abnormal) WBC is _____ Leukaemia.
____ Leukaemia occurs mostly in older people.
Those with chronic leukaemia always have high ___ count.
Bone pain with _____ , _____ and enlarged _______ are symptoms of leukaemia.
hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymph nodes.
Bone pain is due to…..?
abnormal plasma cells accumulating in the bone marrow.
What are the signs of compensation for low iron?
Increased cardiac output, tachycardia, tachypnoea to try and transport oxygen around the body.
What type of anaemia is more common in people from Mediterranean countries?
Can PUD cause anaemia?
Yes. Chronic blood loss caused by PUD can lead to IDA.
What 5 levels are tested to diagnose anaemia?
- Full blood count
- Vit B12
- Erythropoietin (EPO)
How does CKD induce anaemia?
The kidneys cannot produce erythropoietin (EPO) which is made primarily in the kidneys and a small bit in the liver.