Flashcards in Cancers Deck (68)
What are CD20 and CD3 markers for respectively?
CD20 is a B cell marker
CD3 is a T cell marker
What disease is IgG4 related?
Castlemans disease (causes lymphadenopathy)
Generalised lymphadenopathy suggest a systemic inflammatory process or widespread malignancy. Which malignancies should be highest on your list of differentials?
What are the surfaces of the spleen?
Visceral surfaces; L kidney, gastric fundus, tail of the pancreases and splenic flexure of the colon
Describe the arterial supply and venous drainage of the spleen
Supplied by the splenic artery (branch of the coeliac axis)
Drained by the splenic vein (joins the SMV to form the portal vein)
What are some of the possible causes of splenomegaly?
What are some of the possible causes of hyposplenism?
What are Howell-Jolly bodies indicative of?
What is meant by pancytopenia?
A deficiency of blood cells of all lineages
Give an example of an inherited marrow failure syndrome which results in pancytopenia. How does this condition present?
Macrocytosis, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia
Skeletal abnormalities and short stature
Café au lait spots
What are some examples of causes of acquired primary bone marrow failure?
Idiopathic aplastic anaemia
What are some examples of causes of acquired secondary bone marrow failure?
B12/ folate deficiency
What are some of the clinical features of pancytopenia?
Anaemia (fatigue and SOB)
What investigations should be done to establish the cause of pancytopenia?
FBC and blood film
B12 and folate
Bone marrow examination
Pancytopenia can involve different marrow cellularities. In which conditions would you expect marrow to be HYPOcellular vs HYPERcellular?
B12/ folate deficiencies
How is pancytopenia managed?
Transfusions of red cells/ platelets/ neutrophils
Specific treatments for the underlying cause
Types of haematological malignancies are based on the anatomical site involved. Where do leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma involve?
Leukaemia - blood
Lymphoma - lymph nodes
Myeloma - plasma cells in marrow
What type of leukaemia can affect blood AND lymph nodes?
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
(acute leukaemia affect blood only)
What are the lifespans for RBCs, neutrophils and platelets?
RBCs - 120 days
Neutrophils -7-8 hours
Platelets - 7-10 days
What are blasts?
Nucleated precursor cells
What are megakaryocytes?
What are haematopoietic cells?
Cells which are able to renew
What is the normal amount of free light chain production by normal plasma cells?
(excess can leak into the urine as bence jones protein)
What is meant by paraproteinaemia?
Presence of excessive amounts of myeloma protein or monoclonal gamma globulin in the blood
What are some of the possible causes of paraproteinaemia?
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
What is myeloma?
Plasma cell malignancy
What is the premalignant condition that may develop into myeloma?
How does myeloma present?
Hypercalcaemia; stones/ bones/ abdominal groans/ psychiatric moans/ thirst and dehydration
Bone pain and wedge compression fractures
How is myeloma classified?
Classified by the type of antibody produced e.g IgA/ IgE etc. There may be light chains alone which is called Bence Jones myeloma.