Flashcards in Basics Deck (45)
What are some of the possible causes of low cell count?
Bone marrow abnormalities
What are some of the causes of high cell count?
What terms are used to describe excess in haematology?
Cytosis or philia
What term is used to describe shortage in haematology?
Where does haematopoiesis occur in the embryo?
Yolk sac, then liver, then marrow
Spleen in the 3rd - 7th months
In an adult, where is the common site for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy?
Posterior iliac crests
What happens to the nucleus as red blood cells mature?
As the cell matures it loses its nucleus, once it leaves the bone marrow into the circulation it leaves the nucleus behind
Which granulocyte is a polymorph with a segmented nucleus and has neutral staining granules?
Which granulocytes is usually bi-lobed and has bright orange/ red granules?
Which granulocytes has large deep purple granules which obscure the nucleus?
Which type of granulocyte is a circulating version of a tissue mast cell and mediates hypersensitivity reactions? This cell type has Fc receptors which bind IgE and granules which contain histamine.
Which cell type circulates for a week before entering tissues to become macrophages?
These phagocytose invaders and attract other cells
Which cell type cognates responses to infection and ccan thus be considered the 'brains' of the immune system?
What is Hb called when it is oxidised with Fe3+?
Can't carry oxygen in this state
What does the RBC do for energy production?
Relies on glycolysis for energy production as it has no mitochondria
Why do red blood cells have a limited lifespan?
They have no nucleus so can't divide or replace damage
What happens to the levels of erythropoietin in hypoxia?
Erythropoietin levels rise in hypoxia
How is hypoxia sensed and what happens as a consequence?
Interstitial fibroblasts in the kidneys detect hypoxia in the blood flowing through the kidneys
This results in increased production of erythropoietin
How does an increase in levels of erythropoietin levels in conditions of hypoxia act to increase red blood cell production?
Erythropoietin stimulates cell division red cell precursors and recruits more cells to the marrow
The result is erythroid hyperplasia (more machinery to produce RBCs)
What are red blood cells called for the first few days after production?
Worn out red blood cells are recycled into raw materials. What are these raw materials?
Iron, amino acids, bilirubin
Where does red cell destruction usually occur?
How are aged red blood cells taken out of the circulation?
They are taken up by macrophages
Describe how red blood cell contents are removed/ recycled
Globing chains are made into amino acid
Heme is broken down into iron and bilirubin
Bilirubin is taken to the liver, conjugated and then excreted in bile
At the same p02, do HbF and myoglobin bind more or less oxygen than normal Hb?
At the same p02, both HbF and myoglobin can bind more 02
What happens to the levels of 2,3 DPG in chronic anaemia?
2,3 DPG is increased in chronic anaemia
How is most carbon dioxide transported?
Most carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate (60%)
10% is dissolved in solution
30% is bound directly to Hb as carbamino Hb
Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide are free radicals which have unpaired free electrons and can damage haemoglobin. How does glutathione counteract this?
Glutathione reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form water and oxidised glutathione product GSSG
What does the Rapapoport Lubering shunt do?
Generates 2,3 DPG that shifts the oxygen dissociation curve to the right and allows more oxygen to be released