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Flashcards in Basics Deck (45)
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1

What are some of the possible causes of low cell count?

Blood loss

Haemolytic anaemia

Bone marrow abnormalities

Chronic disease

2

What are some of the causes of high cell count?

Infection

Malignancy

Steroids

3

What terms are used to describe excess in haematology?

Cytosis or philia

4

What term is used to describe shortage in haematology?

Penia

5

Where does haematopoiesis occur in the embryo?

Yolk sac, then liver, then marrow

Spleen in the 3rd - 7th months

6

In an adult, where is the common site for bone marrow aspiration and biopsy?

Posterior iliac crests

7

What happens to the nucleus as red blood cells mature?

As the cell matures it loses its nucleus, once it leaves the bone marrow into the circulation it leaves the nucleus behind

8

Which granulocyte is a polymorph with a segmented nucleus and has neutral staining granules?

Neutrophils

9

Which granulocytes is usually bi-lobed and has bright orange/ red granules?

Eosinophils

10

Which granulocytes has large deep purple granules which obscure the nucleus?

Basophils

11

Which type of granulocyte is a circulating version of a tissue mast cell and mediates hypersensitivity reactions? This cell type has Fc receptors which bind IgE and granules which contain histamine.

Basophils

12

Which cell type circulates for a week before entering tissues to become macrophages?

Monocytes

These phagocytose invaders and attract other cells

13

Which cell type cognates responses to infection and ccan thus be considered the 'brains' of the immune system?

Lymphocytes

14

What is Hb called when it is oxidised with Fe3+?

Methaemoglobin

Can't carry oxygen in this state

15

What does the RBC do for energy production?

Relies on glycolysis for energy production as it has no mitochondria

16

Why do red blood cells have a limited lifespan?

They have no nucleus so can't divide or replace damage

17

What happens to the levels of erythropoietin in hypoxia?

Erythropoietin levels rise in hypoxia

18

How is hypoxia sensed and what happens as a consequence?

Interstitial fibroblasts in the kidneys detect hypoxia in the blood flowing through the kidneys

This results in increased production of erythropoietin

19

How does an increase in levels of erythropoietin levels in conditions of hypoxia act to increase red blood cell production?

Erythropoietin stimulates cell division red cell precursors and recruits more cells to the marrow

The result is erythroid hyperplasia (more machinery to produce RBCs)

20

What are red blood cells called for the first few days after production?

Reticulocytes

21

Worn out red blood cells are recycled into raw materials. What are these raw materials?

Iron, amino acids, bilirubin

22

Where does red cell destruction usually occur?

Spleen

23

How are aged red blood cells taken out of the circulation?

They are taken up by macrophages

24

Describe how red blood cell contents are removed/ recycled

Globing chains are made into amino acid

Heme is broken down into iron and bilirubin

Bilirubin is taken to the liver, conjugated and then excreted in bile

25

At the same p02, do HbF and myoglobin bind more or less oxygen than normal Hb?

At the same p02, both HbF and myoglobin can bind more 02

26

What happens to the levels of 2,3 DPG in chronic anaemia?

2,3 DPG is increased in chronic anaemia

27

How is most carbon dioxide transported?

Most carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate (60%)

10% is dissolved in solution
30% is bound directly to Hb as carbamino Hb

28

Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide are free radicals which have unpaired free electrons and can damage haemoglobin. How does glutathione counteract this?

Glutathione reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form water and oxidised glutathione product GSSG

29

What does the Rapapoport Lubering shunt do?

Generates 2,3 DPG that shifts the oxygen dissociation curve to the right and allows more oxygen to be released

30

What does the Embden-Myerhof pathway do?

Anaerobic glycolysis pathway

Reverses Fe3+ to Fe2+