CAP Test 2016 3rd Year Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CAP Test 2016 3rd Year Deck (114)
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1

In advanced CKD, what are often needed to maintain serum phosphate within the normal range?

phosphate binders

2

Does phosphate tend to be low or high in CKD?

high

3

Under what level of iron in the blood should require blood transfusion rather than just oral iron?

8g/l

4

When is IV iron indicated?

if there is no response to oral iron or a rapid increase in haemoglobin is needed e.g. major surgery

5

If one pill was missed in a pack, what should be advised?

take the missing pill now, resume as normal with next pill

6

When should extra measures be taken with missed contraceptive pills?

if two or more pills have been missed

7

What colour is CSF in viral meningitis?

clear

8

What does xanthochromic CSF suggest?

subarachnoid haemorrhage

9

What does cloudy CSF suggest?

acute bacterial infection

10

What colour is CSF normally or in MS?

clear

11

What would the predominant white cells in CSF be in an acute bacterial infection?

neutrophils

12

In whom are oligoclonal bands present?

MS patients (over 90%)

13

Does protein level increase or decrease in an acute bacterial infection on CSF?

increase

14

How are neutrophils recognized?

segmented nucleus

15

Which 3 cell types have segmented nuclei?

neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils

16

How can basophils be identified?

purple/black striking granules

17

How can eosinophils be identified?

red striking granules

18

Are neutrophils raised in pyogenic infections?

yes

19

What is the area responsible for receptive aphasia?

Wernicke's area

20

What is the area responsible for expressive aphasia?

Brocca's area

21

What is the area responsible for nominal aphasia?

angular gyrus

22

What would be the cause for amenorrhea in a teenager who has never had a period, but whose breasts have developed and is a normal height and weight?

imperforate hymen

23

Secondary amenorrhea, and previous chemotherapy?

POF

24

Secondary amenorrhea with facial/abdominal hair growth?

PCOS

25

What may explain bilateral leg oedema?

low serum albumin, which could be caused by nephrotic syndrome, where proteinuria occurs

26

Dysfunction of what causes dysfunction of the posterior columns of the spinal tract?

B12

27

What is the main mechanism of action of lamotrigine?

blockage of voltage sensitive sodium channels

28

Mode of inheritance for Wilson's?

Autosomal recessive

29

Mode of inheritance for Becker's MD?

X linked recessive

30

Mode of inheritance for myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres?

mitochondrial