Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (20)
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1

monomer?

monosaccharide

2

Chemicals?

carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen

3

Glucose structure

- hexose monosaccharide (6 carbons)
- 2 types: alpha and beta

4

alpha glucose structure

look at notes

5

beta glucose structure

look at notes

6

glucose function

- acts as a main energy storage in animals and plants
- structure makes it soluble so it can be easily transported
- chemical bonds contain lots of energy

7

How is a disaccharide formed?

-2 monosaccharides join together in a condensation reaction. A glycosidic bond is formed and water is released

8

Starch properties

- compact
- easily digestible
- made of amylose (mainly) and amylopectin
- insoluble so doesn't cause water to enter cells by osmosis which would make them swell up

9

Starch function

storage of energy in plants

10

Amylose properties/structure

- long chains of alpha glucose (unbranched)
- joined by 1-4 glycosidic bonds
- insoluble
- metabolically inactive
- coiled into a spiral (compact for storage)
- held together by hydrogen bonds

11

Amylopectin properties/structure

- long, branched chains of alpha glucose
- joined by 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds
- many side branches which enzymes can break down to reach glycosidic bonds easily so glucose can be released quickly

12

Glycogen properties/structure

- short, branched chains of alpha glucose
- joined by 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds
- compact so good for storage
- more side branches so stored glucose can be released quickly

13

Glycogen function

- main energy storage in animals

14

Cellulose properties/structure

- long, unbranched chain of beta glucose
- 1-4 glcyosidic bonds
- beta glucose molecules bond forming straight cellulose chains
- chains linked by hydrogen bonds forming strong fibres called microfibrils (compact)
- every other glucose residue is orientated at 180 degrees

15

Cellulose function

- provides structural support for cells e.g. cell wall
- strong
- humans cant digest it

16

What us ribose?

a pentose monosaccharide (5 carbon atoms)

17

ribose structure

look at notes

18

What makes maltose?

alpha glucose + alpha glucose

19

What makes sucrose?

alpha glucose + fructose

20

What makes lactose?

beta glucose + galactose