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Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (33)
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State the elements present in carbohydrates

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen


State the general formula of carbohydrates



Define the term monsaccharide

A monomer of carbohydrates. A single sugar


Define the term disaccharide

A molecule comprised of two monosaccharides, joined together by glycosidic bonds.


Define the term polysaccharide

A polymer made up of many sugar monomers.


Define the term pentose sugar

A monosaccharide composed of 5 carbons


Define the term hexose sugar

A monosaccharide composed of 6 carbons


Define the term triose sugar

A monosaccharied containing 3 carbon atoms e.g. L-glyceraldehyde and D- glyceraldehyde


Draw a molecule of alpha glucose, beta glucose and ribose

Draw a diagram


Define the term isomer

Isomers are molecules with the same moleclear formula but are arranged differently


Describe the difference between alpha- and beta-glucose.

Alpha glucose has an -OH hydroxyl group that points downwards, away from the ring.
Beta glucose has an -OH hydroxyl group that points upwards above the ring.


Draw a table listing the similarities and differences between alpha glucose and ribose

- both carbohydrates
- both monosaccharides
- they both have the same general formula
- they both form rings or chains
- they are both soluable in water

- Glucose is a hexose sugar and ribose is a pentose sugar
- Glucose has 6 carbons and ribose has 5
- Glucose's main function is the production of ATP during aerobic resp
- Ribose forms a component of nucleotide DNA and RNA


List 3 examples of disaccharides and for each state which monosaccharides they are composed of.

Sucrose - formed from a glucose and a fructose monosaccharide
Lactose - a glucose and a galactose
Maltose - two alpha glucose monosaccharides


State the properties and functions of glucose

- Is a hexose sugar and can either be alpha or beta glucose which both a ring structure
- Its structure makes it soluble so it can be easily transported. It is polar which means it is hydrophylic and so hydrogen bonds form between the hydroxyl group and water molecules
- It's chemical bonds contain a lot of energy, this relates to its function as the main energy source in animals and plants


State the functions and properties of fructose

- A hexose monosaccharide.
- It is the suagr found in fruit. It is used as a sugar substitute for diabetics


State the functions and properties of galactose

- A hexose monosaccharide.
- It is used to make lactose (the sugar in milk)


State the properties and functions of maltose

- A dissacharide made of two alpha glucose molecules
- Found in intenstines and in germinating seeds, is an intermediate in the hydrolysis of starch


State the properties and functions of sucrose

- A dissacharide made of alpha glucose and fructose
- In plants carbohydrate is moved from one region to another as sucrose in the plant phloem


State the properties and functions of lactose

- A dissacharide made from alpha glucose and galactose
- The main sugar in milk
- It is difficult to hydrolyse, providing a slow release of sugars to baby.


Draw a labelled diagram demonstrating how two molecules of glucose form a disaccharide in a condensation reaction, showing the location of a 1,4-glycosidic bond and from where a water molecule is generated.

Draw a diagram


Describe, using a diagram, how hydrolysis of maltose occurs and why water is needed.

It occurs when a water molecule is added to the maltose dissacharide. The addition of the water molecule results in the breakdown of maltose into two alpha glucose monosaccharides. The two hydrogen atoms and the oxygen atom from the water molecule bond with the oxygen joining the monosaccharides together to form a hydroxyl group on each monosaccharide.


Explain why alpha-glucose links together to form starch whereas beta-glucose links together to form cellulose.

Beta glucose has a hydroxyl group pointing upwards, this means that the hydroxyl on carbon-1 and carbon-4 are be too far away to react. As a result, the only way that beta glucose molecules can join together is if each monomer rotates 180 degrees to join to its neighbour. This means that the polysaccharide is a straight chain so it is unable to coil or form branches. Cellulose is a straight chain molecule.
However, alpha glucose polysaccharides can form branches and coils e.g. amylopectin forms 1-6 glycosidic bonds as well as 1-4.


List the two different polysaccharides that make up starch.

Amylose and Amylopectin


Explain with the use of diagrams why glycosidic bonds are called 1,4 or 1,6.

Because the glycosidic bond either happens between the hydroxyl group on the 1st carbon and the 4th carbon or between the hydroxyl group on the 1st carbon and 6th carbon


Explain how to calculate the number of glycosidic bonds in a carbohydrate given the number of monosaccharides it is made up from.

Number of monosaccharides - 1 = number of glycosidic bonds


Explain how to calculate the chemical formula for a carbohydrate given the number of hexose sugars it is made up from.

(CH20)x General formula multiplied by x, minus h20 multiplied by x-1


Describe the structure of a cellulose fibre.

Cellulose molecules make hydrogen bonds with eachother, forming microfibrils. These microfibrils join together to make macrofibrils which combine to produce fibres. These fibres are strong and insolubable and are used to make cell walls. Cellulose is an important part of our diet, it is very hard to breakdown and form monomers and so it forms the fibre neccessary for a healthy digestive system.
It is a polymer of beta glucose.


State the properties and functions of cellulose

It is made of long, unbranched chains of beta glucose. Because the chains are straight they can lie parallel to eachother. Numerous hydrogen bonds link parallel chains, producing strength. This means it is difficult to hydrolyse so it makes a good cell wall. The cell wall is fully permeable due to gaps in the fibres


State properties and functions of starch

- A polsaccharide of alpha glucose. It is the main energy storage material in plants and animals. It is insoluable in water so it can be stored and it doesn't cause water to enter the cell by osmosis (that would make the cell swell)
- Amylose is a long unbranched chain of alpha glucose, the angles of the glycosidic bonds give it a coil structure making it compact so it is very good for storage as it can fit a lot in a small space.
- Amylopectin is a long branched chain of alpha glucose, its side branches allow the enzymes that break down the molecule to get at the glycosidic bonds easily and release glucose quickly


State the properties and functions of glycogen

A polysaccharide of alpha glucose. Its bonding is very similar to amylopectin except it has a lot more side branches linked by 1-6 glycosidic bonds.
A lot of branches means that stored glucose can be released quickly which is important for energy release in animals.
It is also a very compact molecule so it is good for storage.