Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (318)
What is the general formula for COH's?
What is the molecular formula of most common monosaccharides?
What bond links disaccharides?
Maltose is a common....
enzymatic hydrolysis product of starch
What do we commonly use sucrose as on a daily basis?
Lactose is the major sugar in what?
How many monosaccharides are oligosaccharides made up of? Linked together by what type of bonds?
3-10, glycosidic bonds
What is an example of a trisaccharide? What are its 3 monomers?
Raffinose- galactose, glucose, fructose
glucose + glucose
Glucose + fructose
glucose + galactose
What is an example of a tetrasaccharide? What are its 4 monomers?
Stachyose - glucose + fructose + galactose + galactose
How many monomers do polysaccharides have?
What are 5 examples of polysaccharides found in nature?
5. xanthan gum
What are 4 common roles of carbohydrates in living systems?
1. An energy source in seeds - starch for germination
2. Structural component - cellulose and hemicellulose
3. A ready supply of energy - mono- and disaccharides
4. short-term energy supply for muscles - glycogen
What are 3 functions of mono- and disaccharides in foods?
1. Sweetening agents
2. Coloring agents (caramel color)
3. Production of flavors (caramelization/Maillard reaction)
What are 7 functions of polysaccharides in foods?
1. Tickening agents
2. water-holding/binding agents
3. Anticaking agents
4. Gelling agents
5. Emulsion stabilizers
6. For producing edible films
7. To encapsulate flavors
In addition to having multiple alcohol functional groups, they have either a _______ or an _______ functional group (in their linear form).
How is the carbon chain of monosaccharides numbered?
from the aldehyde (C-1) or the ketone (C-2) functional group down
What is the smallest monosaccharide?
For glyceraldehyldes, the D or L isomerism refers to the ________ carbon.
For other sugars, D or L isomerism refers ONLY to the _____________ and not any of the other asymmetric carbons that may be in the chain.
1. n-1 carbon (2nd from the bottom)
Optical isomers involving asymmetric carbons other than the carbon at the n-1 position are considered ________ or _______
All C6 monosaccharides are epimers of ______. Examples?
Ex: D-mannose is a C-2 epimer of D-glucose
Monosaccharides can be classified on the basis of _______ and _______.
What type of compound is a ketohexose? Aldohexose? Aldopentose?
Cyclization is due to the formation of internal ______ and _______
Are the reactions involving the cyclization of monosaccharides intermolecular or intramolecular?
Intramolecular - the aldehyde or ketone group and the alcohol group are in the same molecule
What compounds make up hemiacetals?
Alcohol + aldehyde