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Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (36)
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1

What does each of the organic compounds classes consist of?

Consist of large molecules built from small subunits.

2

What are organic compounds? (5)

-carbohydrates -proteins -lipids -vitamins -nucleic acids

3

What is the smallest subunit?

Monomer

4

What do several monomers combine to form?

A polymer

5

What is a monomer?

Monomer, a molecule of any of a class of compounds, mostly organic, that can react with other molecules to form very large molecules or polymers.

6

What is polymer?

A polymer is a type of chemical compound whose molecules are bonded together in long repeating chains.

7

What is each of these polymers characterized by?

Characterized by a specific structure owing to the chemical bonds formed.

8

What are the structures in polymers characterized by?

These structures are related to the function of the compound in living organisms.

9

What are the elements of carbohydrates?

Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen

10

Name the monomer of carbohydrates.

11

What are the monosaccharides?

Glucose,Fructose,Galactose

12

What is a condensation reaction?

When 2 monosaccharides join together it is called a condensation reaction. Water is removed.

13

What is the bond between 2 monosaccharides called?

Glycosidic bond

14

What are two monosaccharides joined together called?

Disaccharide

15

What are lots of monosaccharides joined together called?

Polysaccharide

16

What are the characteristics of simple carbohydrates? (5)

-Small

-Sweet 

-Soluble 

-Sweet tasting

-Reducing sugars

17

Structural composition of monosaccharides: (2)

18

Strcutural composition of disaccharides:

2 monosaccharides joined chemically by glycosidic bonds

19

Structural composition of complex carbohydrates:(5)

• Large
• Compact or long
• Insoluble
• Not sweet tasting
• Not reducing sugars

20

____ is basically a Monosaccharide. A monosaccharide is also called simple sugar and is the most basic form of _____. Hexose sugars include ___,___, and _____.

Hexose

Carbohydrate 

Fructose

Glucose 

Galactose

21

How rings do monasaccharides have?

22

Glucose + Fructose

Glucose + Glucose

Glucose + Galactose 

Sucrose

Maltose

Lactose

23

Draw on your wit bord how disaccharides form.

24

What happens to a disaccharide when it splits into two monomers?

It is called Hydrolysis because water is needed.

25

Where do we generally find starch?

We generally find starch in the plant’s roots and seeds. All plants when they synthesize glucose, the extra glucose is stored in the form of starch.

26

Starch is an element present in all _____ plants.

photosynthetic 

27

Why is starch called a glucan?

 It only consists of glucose molecules all linked together.

28

What is cellulose?

Cellulose is an important structural element of the cell walls of all photosynthetic plants

29

What type of polysaccharide is cellulose?

It is a fibrous kind of polysaccharide which is highly insoluble in water.

30

What is glycogen?

Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals, fungi, and bacteria.