Carcinoma of the Lung Flashcards Preview

Respiratory (LECTURE NOTES) > Carcinoma of the Lung > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carcinoma of the Lung Deck (54):
1

How many people does lung cancer kill in the UK per year

34000

2

What are most lung cancers caused by

Smoking

3

Studies by who estabilished the causative link between smoking and lung cancer?

Doll and Hill

4

What are some other causes of carcinoma of the lung

Passive smoking
Genetic factors
Ionising radiation (radon gas)
Asbestos exposure
Diffuse lung fibrosis
Lack of dietary fruit and vegetables

5

Family history of Lung cancer is a risk factor. True or false

True

6

What are the 2 main groups of lung cancer

Small cell and non small cell

7

What are 3 types of non small cell carcinomas

Squamous cell carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma
Large cell (undifferentiated) carcinoma

8

Where do small cell carcinoma usually arise from

Neuro-endocrine cells of the bronchial tree and its endocrine potential is sometime manifest clinically by ectopic hormone production

9

What is the most common type of lung cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma

10

What type of lung cancer has the greatest tendency to cavitate

Squamous cell

11

Define large - cell undifferentiated carcinomas

Lung cancers that do not show squamous or glandular differentiation

12

What do central lung cancers usually present with

chest symptoms (haemoptysis)

13

What do peripheral tumours present with

More often general symptoms or effects of metastases

14

Where do paraneoplastic syndromes arise

At sites distant from the tumour or its metastases

15

The syndrome of inappropriate anti diuretic hormone secretion is most common with which type of lung cancer

Small cell cancer

16

What might hypercalcaemia in patients with lung cancer be indicative of

Bone metastases

17

What might cause paralysis of the phrenic nerve

Direct invasion of the mediastinum

18

What can cause facial oedema, headache, distended pulseless jugular veins and enlarged collateral veins over the chest and arms

Obstruction of the superior vena cava

19

What is a pancoast tumour

A carcinoma situated in the superior sulcus of the lung where the subclavian artery forms a groove over the lung apex

20

How many lung cancers are visible during bronchoscopy

2/3rds

21

How can samples from a tumour be taken during bronchoscopy

Biopsy forceps or cytology brush can be passed through the channel

22

Who is bronchoscopy contra-indicated in?

Those with uncontrolled angina or recent MI

23

What does endobronchial ultrasound allow

Needle aspiration to be performed

24

What does endobronchial ultrasound allow

Needle aspiration to be performed

25

Treatment of lung cancer depends on what 3 things

the cell type and stage of the disease and the fitness of the patient

26

What is the main treatment for small cell carcinoma

Chemotherapy

27

Are untreated patients with small cell carcinoma usually symptomatic or asymptomatic

Very symptomatic

28

How long is the chance of survival for untreated small cell carcinoma

3 months

29

Describe limited disease

When the small cell cancer has spread minimally and radiotherapy can be used

30

Describe extensive disease

When the small cell ccarcinoma has spread beyond a radiotherapy port (distant metastases)

31

Where is consolidation radiotherapy usually given

To the site of the tumour and mediastinal nodes

32

Where is a common place for metastases

Cerebral

33

What is the best chance of cure in non-small cell carcinoma

Surgical resection

34

What is the staging system used in lung cancer

TNM

35

What is the key radiological investigation for staging lung cancer

CT scanning

36

What can be used to investigate the active disease in mediastinal nodes

PET (positron emission tomography )

37

What can be used to investigate the active disease in mediastinal nodes

PET (positron emission tomography )

38

Over expression of what receptor is a feature of non-small cell lung cancer

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)

39

Over expression of what receptor is a feature of non-small cell lung cancer

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)

40

What does palliative care focus on

Improving the patient's functioning and psychosocial wellbeing with relief of symptoms

41

What should opiates be prescribed with

Laxatives and an anti-emetic

42

What drug might be helpful in bossting the appetite

Prednisolone

43

Where does alveolar cell carcinoma spread

It arises in the alveoli of the lung and spreads along the alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium

44

What does alveolar cell carcinoma resemble histologically

Adenocarcinoma

45

What is required to diagnose alveolar cell carcinoma

A transbronchial biopsy of alveolar tissue

46

What is the treatment of choice when the tumour in alveolar cell carcinoma is confined to one lobe

Surgical resection

47

Carcinoid tumours are less likely to metastasis. True or false

True

48

What age are patients with a carcinoid tumour likely to be affected at?

Young age

49

Are carcinoid tumours related to smoking

No

50

What are the two common presentations of carcinoid tumours

Haemoptysis and wheeze

51

What is the treatment of choice for a carcinoid tumour

Surgical resection

52

How does a superior vena caval obstruction present?

With headache, distended neck veins that are non-pulsatile, oedema of the face and arms, dilated collateral veins over the chest

53

What is the most common cause of SVCO

Lung cancer

54

What is sometimes useful in reducing oedema and inflammation around a tumour

Dexamethasone