Cardiac Diseases Flashcards Preview

Adult Perspectives > Cardiac Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Diseases Deck (62):
1

_____ is the
leading cause of death
in the United States.

Heart disease

2

Chronic lower
respiratory disease is the
____ leading killer of
Americans.

third

3

Heart disease may be due to _______________________________,

Blockage of the coronary arteries

4

Heart disease can be caused by diseases of the ________________, or ________________
of the heart

Heart muscle or structural abnormalities

5

• Types of heart disease
• ________________and ________________________________
• ________________________________
• ________________ heart failure

Angina pectoris, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy

6

Not controllable risk factors for heart disease

1) Age
2) Family history
3) Gender

7

Controllable risk factors for heart disease

4) Smoking
5) Hyperlipidemia
6) Hypertension
7) Sedentary lifestyle
8) Obesity
9) Diabetes
10) Stress
11) Alcohol

8

Primary intervention for heart disease

Health fairs and lecture
series

9

Inadequate blood supply to heart
muscle=________________ from coronary artery disease

Ischemia

10

Secondary intervention for heart disease

• Efforts to stop or slow
progression
• Improving individual’s
risk factor profile

11

Symptoms of angina pectoris?
How is it relieved?

Chest pain, discomfort, pressure
• Symptoms typically with increased activity
• Can also occur after heavy meal, while resting
• Relieved with rest, nitroglycerin (pills or spray)

12

Myocardial infarction is ___ of the heart muscle

Death

13

Symptoms of heart attack

Chest pain, pain in jaw, arm, or teeth, dizziness,
nausea. shortness of breath, sweating, fatigue

14

Echocardiogram (ECG) description

Creates picture of the heart and looks at the structure of the heart and blood vessels via ultrasound

15

Electrocardiogram (EKG) description

Stickers with leads are placed on patient. Measures electrical activity and efficiency within the heart

16

P wave=

Atrial contraction (depolarization

17

QRS=

Ventricles depolarize then contract (Ventricular systole)

18

T=

Ventricles repolarize (relax,) heart is at rest.

19

ST segment elevation could indicate

Acute injury

20

T wave inversion could indicate

Ischemia

21

A non-STEMI (ST elevation myocardial infarction) is usually caused by a ____________________
artery but the artery is usually not completely blocked.

Severely narrowed

22

NSTEMI account for about ___ and STEMI about ___ of all heart attacks (myocardial infarction).

30%
70%

23

A STEMI or ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (heart
attack) is caused by a ________________ _______(100%) blockage of a coronary artery.

Sudden complete

24

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a ___ condition caused by an _____

chronic
Ineffective pump

25

Two implication of heart pump failure in CHF are

• Can’t fill due to hypertrophy of cardiac muscle
• Can’t eject oxygenated blood to the rest of the body

26

Symptoms of congestive heart failure

• Sudden weight gain
• Inability to lie down
• Persistent dry hacking cough
• Shortness of breath with normal activity
• Swelling in ankles or feet or legs
• Fatigue with activity
• Lack of appetite
• Difficulty focusing one’s attention

27

Atrial septal defect is a ______ heart defect

congenital

28

Symptoms of atrial septal defect include?

SOB, fatigue, heart palpitations, decreased exercise
capacity• Audible heart murmur
• Excessive blood flow into right atrium, right ventricle,
and lungs
• Hypertrophy of right side
• Increased pressure on pulmonary artery
• Enlarged right atrium  arrhythmias
• Lung vessels stiffen
• More likely to develop CHF or stroke
• Can be surgically closed

29

Angioplasty is a procedure to ________________________________ to
reduce symptoms of ________________

Improve blood flow
Angina

30

Methods of performing an angioplasty include?

• Catheter with balloon is inflated to restore blood flow
• Stent remains in place
• Bare metal
• Drug-eluting

31

An atherorectomy is a procedure to ______
___________________

Remove plaque

32

Methods of performing an atherorectomy include?

• Catheter with
rotating blade
• Followed by stent
placement

33

Open heart surgery is procedure that involves ________________

Sternotomy

34

Types of open heart surgery

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
Valve replacement or repair

35

A coronary artery bypass graft includes

• Replacement of occluded arteries with artery/vein grafts
• Grafts attached to aorta to allow oxygenated blood flow,
reconnected below level of occlusion
• Mammary, radial arteries or leg veins

36

Valve replacement or repair types

Prosthetic valve - blood thinners would be required
Tissue or biothesis valve (human/pig) - blood thinners would not be required.

37

Types of minimally invasive heart bypass

• MIDCAB=Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass
• OPCAB=Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass

38

MIDCAB=Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass is also called

Beating heart surgery

39

Exercise heart rate zone = 50% to ______

85%

40

Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion
• Subjective measure of __________________

Physical effort

41

Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion is scaled between __ and __

6 and 20

42

Borg says there is a high correlation between perceived exertion and ___

Heart rate

43

Met measurement for sitting quietly for adults

3.5 ml O2/kg body weight/min.

44

If a person is at a met level of 1-1.4 they can

They can move in bed, sit up for short periods, can only exercise lower extremities while sitting up, and all extremities while lying down.

45

If a person is at a met level of 1.4-2 they can

Sit up as tolerated. May exercise all extremities but no isometric or strengthening exercises are allowed.

46

If a person is at a met level of 3-3.5 they can

Unlimited walk on zero grade. Can walk on a treadmill at 1-1.5 mph at 12% grade.

47

If a person is at a met level of 3.5-4 they can

May walk on level surfaces up to 2.5 mph. Can use up to 10 lbs resistance.

48

Phase 1 of cardiac rehabilitation includes?

Phase I: Inpatient cardiac
rehabilitation
• Goals
• Prevent muscle loss from
bed rest.
• Monitor and assess
patient’s ability to
function.
• Instruct in appropriate
home activities.
• Instruct in application of
sternal precautions to daily
activities.
• Educate about risk factors
and methods to reduce
them.

49

Intervention process during phase I: Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation

Evaluate, analyze, and modify patient’s activities of daily
living.
• During exercise, occupational therapist may monitor HR,
BP, EKG, and symptoms.
• Individual and group treatment
• Calisthenics
• Stair climbing
Hall walking
• Treadmill
• Bicycle ergometer

50

Discharge planning
• Occupational therapist does the following:
• Provides information regarding level of __________________
that patient tolerates at discharge
• Makes recommendations for further therapies
• Provides input regarding possible need for ____________or
extended care services

Physical function
Home health

51

Home health
• Teach self-awareness of activities according to METs
• Teach pacing and ______ simplification
• Address issues relating to ____________ and sexuality
• 1% of all heart attacks occur during sexual activity
• 0.6%-1.7% risk of death during intercourse
• Physical demands of intercourse = climbing 2 flights of stairs
• Orgasm = increased HR and BP = 10-15 seconds

Work
Depression

52

Home program after angioplasty

• Teach risk factors and modifications
• Incorporate moderate aerobic exercise into daily routines
• Stress reduction techniques

53

Home program after myocardial infarction

• Healing of heart muscle 4-6 weeks
• Evaluate activity expenditure, restrict to 2-4 MET range
• Medication effects on mood and sexual desire

54

Home program for congesting heart failure

• Heavy emphasis on pacing and work simplification due to
limited endurance
• Educate on signs and symptoms of CHF, overexertion and
risk of heart failure

55

Home program after open heart surgery

• Application of sternal precautions to ADL
• Stretches and mild exercises
• Sexual activity after 6-8 weeks while avoiding strain on
sternum (side-lying, sitting)

56

Phase II of cardiac rehabilitation is?:

Outpatient cardiac rehabilitation

57

Goals of phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation are?

• Continue medical surveillance and assessment of an
individual’s cardiovascular response to exercise.
• Limit the physiological and psychological effects of heart
disease.
• Instruct on risk factors for heart disease and how to reduce
their impact.
• Maximize psychological and vocational status.•
• Determine appropriate exercise intensity
• Continuous vs. discontinuous exercise

58

It is preferable to develop exercise prescription based on results of?

stress test

59

Phase III of cardiac rehabilitation is?

Community-based rehabilitation

60

Community-based rehabilitation is generally not ____

Covered by insurance

61

Community based rehabilitation requires ___

Physician referral

62

A once per month ___ is part of the community based rehabilitation phase

EKG