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Flashcards in Lab Values Deck (57):
1

Name 4 commonly ordered tests

• CBC (complete blood count) • BMP (basic metabolic panel) • Cardiac Enzymes test • Coagulation tests (PTT and INR)

2

Key components of CBC (Complete blood count) are:

Red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit

3

Low red blood cell levels indicate ____ , high levels indicate _______or ____

anemia
dehydration or bleeding

4

High white blood cell levels indicate ____ or _____

Infection or
immune disorder

5

Platelets are ____ factors,

clotting

6

Low platelet levels indicate ___ disorder, high levels increase risk of ____

bleeding
clots

7

Hemoglobin carries ____ in the blood, low levels results in _____

Oxygen
anemia

8

Hematocrit – how much space ___ take up in blood.

RBCs

9

High hematocrit levels indicate ____, low levels indicate ___

dehydration
anemia

10

The BMP tests for what four things?

• Glucose
• Calcium
• Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, CO2 chloride)
• Kidney function (BUN and creatinine)

11

The basic metabolic panel (BMP) looks at different chemicals in the ____

blood plasma.

12

Extremely low blood sugar is below ____
Extremely high blood sugar is over ___

70
350

13

Calcium is an important ion for ___ function, ___ function, and ___ function.

Bone, kidney, thyroid

14

Abnormal calcium levels are associated with ___

cancer

15

Hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium) can indicate ___ or ____

hyperparathyroidism or bone cancer

16

Hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium) can indicate which four diseases?

Liver disease (alcoholism,) hypoparathyroidism, pancreatitis, and renal failure.

17

Hypernatremia, or high sodium, is a sodium level over __

140

18

Hyponatremia, or low sodium, is a sodium level under ___

120

19

Hypernatremia, or high sodium usually results from ___ or sometimes _____

dehydration or
sometimes diabetes insipidus

20

Hyponatremia, or low sodium, indicates what 6 things?

diarrhea, kidney disease, Addison
disease, heart failure (fluid overload), cirrhosis, or malnutrition

21

• Hypokalemia – low potassium (<3.0) can occur with diarrhea, Tylenol
overdose, or excess urination due to diuretic medication

potassium

22

Potassium levels should be between __ and ___

3 and 5

23

Hyperkalemia can result from?

kidney disease, Addison
disease, diabetes, dehydration, infection, and injuries to tissue

24

Hypokalemia can occur with?

diarrhea, Tylenol
overdose, or excess urination due to diuretic medication

25

High CO2 levels can indicate

lung disease (COPD), metabolic alkalosis
(high pH), and certain syndromes

26

Low CO2 levels can indicate

shock, Addison disease, metabolic acidosis
(low pH), kidney disease, methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning,
kidney disease, or diabetic ketoacidosis

27

High chloride levels can indicate
-

dehydration, Cushing syndrome, or
kidney disease and metabolic acidosis

28

Low chloride levels can indicate

CHF, emphysema and chronic lung
disease, Addison disease, and metabolic alkalosis

29

Blood urea nitrogen is used to identify

acute or chronic kidney
disease

30

High blood urea nitrogen levels are associated with? (4 things)

congestive heart failure, shock, heart attack,
and dehydration.

31

BNP elevation is also present with excess ____ breakdown

protein breakdown

32

Excess protein breakdown is also called?

Rhabdomyolysis

33

Low BUN levels are associated with severe ____, but low BUN is uncommon

severe liver disease

34

Elevated creatinine levels indicate ___ injury due to infection,
autoimmune disease, toxicity, prostate disease, dehydration, septic
shock, CHF, or diabetes.

kidney

35

Low creatinine levels are not ____

significant.

36

The BMP measures certain cardiac enzymes including (name two) include: •

Creatine kinase
Troponins

37

Creatine Kinase is a blood product released when

heart muscle is
damaged

38

Troponins- protein involved in

muscle contraction

39

High troponin levels indicate

heart muscle damage

40

High levels of creatine or “positive” troponins indicate the presence of a

heart attack.

41

If a client has high cardiac enzyme levels, hold treatment unless.

They are cleared by the physician.

42

In most circumstances, if a client has high cardiac enzyme levels, it is generally OK to

treat if they are
trending down.

43

INR is a chemical marker associated with the use of .
• H

coumadin (warfarin)

44

High INR levels indicate ___ risk, and low levels indicate increased risk for ____

Bleeding risk, low levels indicate
increased risk for blood clots

45

PTT is a chemical marker associated with the use of

heparin.

46

High PTT levels indicate ___, low levels indicate increased risk for ___

bleeding risk
blood clots

47

____ is a chemical released when heart muscle is stretched.

Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)

48

High levels of BNP (>___ pg/ml) are an indicator of
congestive heart failure (CHF). Levels above___ pg/ml indicate severe
heart failure.

300
900

49

Patients in severe heart failure should be monitored for symptoms of (4 things)

shortness of breath, low blood pressure, swelling of the legs, and
dizziness.

50

Treatment should be held for any lab value labeled as a ___ or ____lab
unless treatment is specifically ordered by the physician after they have been
made aware of the abnormal result. (This varies by the physician- always
follow the protocol for that facility!).

critical or panic

51

Therapy is also held for any ___ radiology procedures (MRI, CT, ABG’s,
Ultrasound, EKG).

STAT

52

Therapy should be held for potassium levels less than __ or greater than ___

3
5

53

Therapy should be held for hemoglobin below __ or hematocrit below ___

8
24

54

• Blood sugar less than __ may cause patients to become unresponsive.
If they regain consciousness quickly, their symptoms are usually
relieved by giving them a snack (OJ, peanut butter crackers) and
waiting a few minutes for their sugar to come back to a safe range.
Hold if blood sugar is above ___ .

70
350

55

Which abnormal lab value is associated with Severe anemia and increase risk of dizziness, falls, and
fatigue or muscle cramping and soreness due to decreased oxygenation of tissues.

Hemoglobin below 8 and hematocrit below 24

56

Therapy should be held for sodium less than ___ and greater than ___

120
140

57

Therapy should be held for INR greater than __ or PTT greater than ___. This indicates excessive
risk of bleeding due to very thin blood serum

4.0
120