cardiac enzymes for diagnostic (3)
imaging- electrocardiogram for?
1st used, usually. baseline, acute setting- fast & basic.
cardiac enzymes onset and peak?
3-12h onset, peak 18-24h
cardiac stress test is used for? (4)
evaluation of exertional chest pain,
significance of known CAD,
risk assessment of ischemic heart disease
cardiac stress test contraindications (4)
acute phase of MI or ACS
acute myocarditis or pericarditis
cardiac stress test looks for? (2)
symptom development while exercising along a protocol
transthoracic echocardiogram can evaluate? (5)
wall motion (damaged tissue) calculate EF chamber size valve structure & fxn tumors/masses/clots
transesophageal echo can evaluate? (5)
clots, septal defects, PFO, ascending aortic atherosclerosis, valvular pathology aortic dissection
gold standard for CAD diagnosis?
indications for cardiac cath/angiogram (2)
known/suspected CAD- unstable angina, atypical chest pain
before valve surgery w/ chest pain of ECG changes
cardiac imaging that can also be therapeutic?
inability to contract and expel blood?
inability to relax and fill?
causes of systolic dysfunction? (3)
cardiomyopathy (impaired contractility)
pressure overload (high afterload)
causes of diastolic dysfunction? (3)
ischemia, fibrosis, sarcoids- leading to restriction
peripheral edema, RUQ pain/discomfort, JVD, ascites/liver failure
right sided HF
dyspnea, diaphoresis, tachypnea, tachycardia, rales, S3/S4
left side HF
what test is used to differentiate pulm. from cardiac disease in pts with dyspnea?
clinical presentation of HF (5)
edema rales at the bases of the lungs JVD S3/S4 murmur dyspnea/cough
HF pharm treatments (5)
ACE inhibitor diuretics B blocker Spironolactone Digoxin
CXR findings for pulmonary edema (3)
Kerley B lines
pulmonary edema treatment (4)
cause of pulmonary edema
increased pulmonary venous pressure
which will have decreased ejection fraction, systolic or diastolic dysfunction?
systolic, due to dilated LV
causes of HF
CAD, cardiomyopathy, pressure overload, ischemia, fibrosis, sarcoids