Flashcards in cardiac physiology Deck (237)
What is the number 1 cause of death?
What is the major underlying cause of cardiovascular disease?
ischemia due to atheroclerosis, thrombus, and/or artery spasm
what cause has been linked to atherogenesis?
high blood cholesterol
What kind of mechanisms link couple dyslipidemia to atheroma formation?
What are the characteristics associated with early atherogeneis?
leukocyte recruitment and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines
What condition is promoted by inflammatory pathways and is responsible for MI and most strokes?
T/F: the nervous system can modulate inflammation.
T; the nervous system can do pretty much anything.
What is the term for prevention of blood loss?
What are the mechanisms of blood loss prevention?
vascular spasm, formation of a platelet plug, blood coagulation, and fibrous tissue growth to seal
What neural reflex is associated with vascular constriction?
SNS induces constriction from pain
What is responsible for most of the constriction during hemostasis?
local myogenic spasm
What local humoral factor is associated with hemostasis?
thromboxane A2 from platelets
What makes platelets unlike whole cells?
they cannot divide
What phospholipid contatins platelet factor 3 and initiates clotting?
Where are the glycoproteins located that avoid the normal endothelium but adhere to damaged area?
platelet cell membrane
When platelets contact a damaged area, what 4 things do they do?
swell, take an irregular form with irradiating surfaces, contractile proteins contract causing granule release, and secrete things (ADP, Thromboxane A2, and serotonin)
T/F: Thromboxane A2 is a vasodilator
False; it is a vasconstrictor
What is the half-life of platelets?
T/f: platelets are only important in severe ruptures
False; platelets are important in minute ruptures
What is the role of endothelium with respect to platelets?
prevents platelet aggregation
What is the name of the vasodilator that stimulates platelet adenyl cyclase which suppresses release of granules and limits platelet extension?
Other than producing PGI2 and preventing platelet aggregationg, what is the other role of endothelium in CVP?
Producing factor VIII (clotting)
What do Aspirin and Ibuprofen block production of by blocking fatty acid cyclooxygenase?
What does cyclooxygenase convert arachidonic acid to?
PGG2 and PGH2 (intermediates)
What makes anticoagulants different from lysis of clots?
anticoagulants prevent clots from forming instead of dissolving clots that have already formed.
T/F: heparin dissolves clots.
false; heparin is an anticoagulant and prevents clots from forming
T/F: plasmin prevents clots from forming.
false; plasmin is associated with lysis of clots (dissolves clots that have already formed)
what is the inactive form of plasmin which circulates in the blood?
Where are a few endogenous activators of plasminogen found?
in tissues, plasma, and urine