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Flashcards in cardiac physiology Deck (237)
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1

What is the number 1 cause of death?

cardiovascular disease

2

What is the major underlying cause of cardiovascular disease?

ischemia due to atheroclerosis, thrombus, and/or artery spasm

3

what cause has been linked to atherogenesis?

high blood cholesterol

4

What kind of mechanisms link couple dyslipidemia to atheroma formation?

Inflammatory mechanisms

5

What are the characteristics associated with early atherogeneis?

leukocyte recruitment and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines

6

What condition is promoted by inflammatory pathways and is responsible for MI and most strokes?

thrombosis

7

T/F: the nervous system can modulate inflammation.

T; the nervous system can do pretty much anything.

8

What is the term for prevention of blood loss?

hemostasis

9

What are the mechanisms of blood loss prevention?

vascular spasm, formation of a platelet plug, blood coagulation, and fibrous tissue growth to seal

10

What neural reflex is associated with vascular constriction?

SNS induces constriction from pain

11

What is responsible for most of the constriction during hemostasis?

local myogenic spasm

12

What local humoral factor is associated with hemostasis?

thromboxane A2 from platelets

13

What makes platelets unlike whole cells?

they cannot divide

14

What phospholipid contatins platelet factor 3 and initiates clotting?

thromboplastin

15

Where are the glycoproteins located that avoid the normal endothelium but adhere to damaged area?

platelet cell membrane

16

When platelets contact a damaged area, what 4 things do they do?

swell, take an irregular form with irradiating surfaces, contractile proteins contract causing granule release, and secrete things (ADP, Thromboxane A2, and serotonin)

17

T/F: Thromboxane A2 is a vasodilator

False; it is a vasconstrictor

18

What is the half-life of platelets?

8-12 days

19

T/f: platelets are only important in severe ruptures

False; platelets are important in minute ruptures

20

What is the role of endothelium with respect to platelets?

prevents platelet aggregation

21

What is the name of the vasodilator that stimulates platelet adenyl cyclase which suppresses release of granules and limits platelet extension?

PGI2 (prostacyclin)

22

Other than producing PGI2 and preventing platelet aggregationg, what is the other role of endothelium in CVP?

Producing factor VIII (clotting)

23

What do Aspirin and Ibuprofen block production of by blocking fatty acid cyclooxygenase?

thromboxane A2

24

What does cyclooxygenase convert arachidonic acid to?

PGG2 and PGH2 (intermediates)

25

What makes anticoagulants different from lysis of clots?

anticoagulants prevent clots from forming instead of dissolving clots that have already formed.

26

T/F: heparin dissolves clots.

false; heparin is an anticoagulant and prevents clots from forming

27

T/F: plasmin prevents clots from forming.

false; plasmin is associated with lysis of clots (dissolves clots that have already formed)

28

what is the inactive form of plasmin which circulates in the blood?

plasminogen

29

Where are a few endogenous activators of plasminogen found?

in tissues, plasma, and urine

30

What are a couple of exogenous activators of plasminogen?

streptokinase and tPA (tissue plasminogen activator)