Cardiac Quiz Flashcards Preview

Board Review CRNA (Sweat Book) > Cardiac Quiz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Quiz Deck (118):
1

What two factors determine mean arterial blood pressure?

1) CO (HR x SV)
2) SVR

2

What two factors determine cardiac output?

1) SV
2) HR
CO= SV x HR

3

The interplay of what 3 factors determine stroke volume?

1) preload
2) afterload
3) contractility

4

What two factors determine preload?

1) intravascular volume
2) venous tone
* when veins constrict, blood is diverted to the heart

5

What is the major determinant of intravascular volume?

the amount of sodium in the body

6

What hormone is most important for controlling intravascular volume?

aldosterone--> controls the Na+

7

What is the best equation for MAP if you know CO and SVR?

MAP = (CO x SVR)/80 + CVP
*this equation can be manipulated to find other values

8

Preload is the ________ present in the wall of the left ventricle at the end of diastole (immediately prior to contraction).

tension--> "tightness"--> force
*preload is d\t volume, but is not volume--> it is the tension in the wall

9

Preload is determined by the _______ of blood in the LV chamber at the end-diastole.

VOLUME--> but it is the tension not volume

10

Afterload is the _______ in the wall of the heart at the time the ______ valve opens.

tension--> force at the time the aortic valve opens
* "After"load--> after systole starts

11

Afterload is determined by ___________.

SVR...... SVR= PRESSURE
* the > the SVR, the > the afterload
* afterload is d\t the SVR (pressure) on the other side of the valve but is actually the tension on the wall after systole begins

12

The _______ the SVR, the _______ the afterload.

>SVR=>afterload

13

When afterload increases, SV _______.

decreases

14

When preload increases, SV ________.

increases

15

The > the ventricular filling (volume), the ________ the preload (tension). What explains this?

greater--> this is d\t Frank Starlings Law of the Heart

16

Where _____ goes, H2O follows.

sodium

17

When you hear preload think _______, afterload think _______, contractility think ________.

preload=volume
afterload=pressure
contractility=chemicals (inotropes, CCB's, etc)

18

SV= _______ - _______.

EDV-ESV

19

EF= _____________

EF= (EDV-ESV)/EDV x 100

20

Contractility doesn't influence _______, it influences ______.

filling--> it influences emptying

21

Where does angiotensinogen come from?

the liver

22

Where does renin come from?

the kidney (JGA); its dumped into the blood and affects angiotensinogen--> Ang1

23

Where is angiotensin converted enzyme (ACE) primarily found and what does it do?

LUNGS--> converts angiotensin I to II

24

Anytime you see "-ogen" as in angiotensinogen, think ______.

substrate

25

How can you easily remember the layers and products of the adrenal cortex?

AG (aldosterone--> zona glomerulosa)
CF (cortisol--> zona fasiculata) (glucocorticoids such as cortisol)
TR (testosterone--> zona reticularis)
*remember--> salt, sugar, sex (aldosterone, cortisol, testosterone)

26

Given you have filled the heart (preload) and that the aortic valve opens (afterload), can you squeeze better? This is contractility. It is determined by the CHEMICAL environment of the cardiac cell. What are some examples of chemicals that alter contractile function?

ions (calcium and magnesium), oxygen, acids, drugs, hormones
*when contractility increases, the ventricle empties MORE completely and SV increases

27

What is the difference between concentric and eccentric hypertrophy in relation to the size of the left ventricular chamber?

concentric= no change in the size of the LV chamber
eccentric= increased size of the LV chamber

28

What law has to do with ventricular hypertrophy in response to pressure or volume overload?

law of Laplace

29

What happens during concentric hypertrophy?

LV wall thickens and chamber size remains same--> results from chronically elevated afterload (coarctation of aorta, chronic aortic stenosis, chronic untreated arterial HTN)
*IHSS is different than concentric hypertrophy b\c size of LV chamber would decrease

30

What happens during eccentric hypertrophy?

LV wall dilates, thus permitting the chamber to enlarge--> results from chronic requirement to pump large volumes of blood (mitral insufficiency, chronic aortic insufficiency, morbid obesity d\t increased volume)

31

What does coarctation mean?

"narrowing"

32

Name the 3 main causes of concentric hypertrophy.

1) coarctation of the aorta
2) chronic untreated HTN
3) chronic aortic stenosis
*pressure challenge on the heart

33

Name the 3 main causes of eccentric hypertrophy.

1) chronic aortic regurgitation
2) chronic mitral regurgitation
3) morbid obesity (50ml/kg--> but they have a lot of kg!)
*volume overload issue

34

Easy way to remember Law of Laplace.....?

TP for the rectum
T=p x r
*explains ventricular hypertrophy in response to volume or pressure

35

What is the x axis on the ventricular pressure-volume loop?

VOLUME

36

What is the y axis on the ventricular pressure-volume loop?

PRESSURE

37

If the ventricular pressure-volume loop becomes narrower or wider, what is being changed?

VOLUME

38

If the ventricular pressure-volume loop becomes taller or shorter, what is being changed?

PRESSURE

39

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does A represent?

mitral valve opens

40

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. There is normally a slight increase in pressure right before point B. What does this represent?

atrial kick (~25ml)

41

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does B represent?

mitral valve closes ("S1" sound-- end of diastole, systole begins); EDV--> tension in the chamber is "preload" (all the volume is in and now pressure begins to build)

42

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does C represent?

aortic valve opens--> afterload d\t SVR (~80 DBP--> highest pressure that was reached before ejecting); ejection begins after point C, so volume begins to fall

43

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does the peak from point C to D represent?

The SBP (~120mmHg)--> highest pressure that was reached while ejecting

44

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does point D represent?

aortic valve closes ("S2" sound--> systole ends and diastole begins; also this is the ESV--> this point will show you contractility changes... b\c contractility has to do with the amount of blood ejected.... so if more blood is left, then contractility decreased

45

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does A-B represent?

diastolic filling; volume increases rapidly and pressure only increases slightly

46

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does B-C represent?

isovolumetric contraction; no change in volume, pressure builds rapidly

47

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does C-D represent?

Systolic ejection; increase and then decrease in pressure as volume decreases rapidly

48

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does D-A represent?

isovolumetric relaxation; no change in volume, but rapid decreases in pressure

49

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. What does the volume distance between vertical line A-D and B-C represent?

stroke volume (EDV is point B and ESV is point D

50

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. At what point does systole BEGIN?

B; because this is when the mitral valve closes.... aortic valve doesn't open until C

51

From bottom left to right and counterclockwise on the ventricular pressure-volume loop, the points go from A->B->C->D. At what point does diastole begin?

D; aortic valve closes at this point, but the mitral valve doesn't open until A

52

If you have an increase in preload, filling increases. What happens to stroke volume if the ventricle empties to the same level as previously.

stroke volume increases.... b\c it ejected MORE to be able to return to the SAME preload

53

What is the primary problem with cardiac tamponade? What are the 3 main things effected?

it is primarily a "filling" problem
1) decreased filling
2) decreased pressure
3) decreased squeezing

54

When end-diastolic volume increases (preload), the left ventricle empties to the previous end-systolic volume. So what is happening to SV?

it increases

*so, know the inverse

55

When preload increases, SV ________. When preload decreases, SV ________.

preload increases, SV increase
preload decreases, SV decreases

56

When afterload increases, the heart empties (MORE or LESS) _______ completely; both end-diastolic volume (preload) and end-systolic volume (INCREASE or DECREASE _______ when afterload increases.

afterload increases---> heart empties LESS complete--> EDV and ESV INCREASE when afterload increases

57

When afterload decreases, the heart empties (MORE or LESS) _______ completely; both end-diastolic volume (preload) and end-systolic volume (INCREASE or DECREASE _______ when afterload decreases.

MORE completely--> EDV and ESV decrease

58

What visual change is seen in a ventricular pressure-volume loop when giving sodium nitroprusside?

decreased afterload--> PV loop shift down (lower pressures) and to the left (smaller volumes)

59

When contractility increases, the ventricle empties (MORE or LESS) _______ completely; both end-diastolic volume (preload) and end-systolic volume (INCREASE or DECREASE _______ when contractility increases.

MORE; DECREASE

60

When contractility decreases, the ventricle empties (MORE or LESS) _______ completely; both end-diastolic volume (preload) and end-systolic volume (INCREASE or DECREASE _______ when contractility decreases.

LESS; INCREASE

61

If a PV loop change shows an increase in SBP, afterload, and increased SV.... what drug could it be?

digitalis (PDE III inhibitor, so increase in cAMP= better squeeze) or calcium--> because there is an increase in SV!!!

62

Explain how the pressure volume loop shifts when there is an increase in preload. What interventions cause this?

preload increases--> PV loop shifts to a greater EDV WITHOUT a change in ESV

GIVE FLUIDS

63

Explain how the pressure volume loop shifts when there is an decrease in preload. What interventions cause this?

preload decreases--> PV loop shifts to a smaller EDV WITHOUT a change in ESV

GIVE diuretic (furosemide) or venodilator (nitroglycerin)

64

Explain how the pressure volume loop shifts when there is an increase in afterload. What interventions cause this?

afterload increases--> PV loop shifts to > pressures (upward) and to > volumes (rightward)

caused by: drugs that increase SVR and afterload--> phenylephrine

65

Explain how the pressure volume loop shifts when there is an decrease in afterload. What interventions cause this?

afterload decreases--> PV loop shifts to < pressure (downward) and to smaller volumes (leftward)

caused by: drugs that decrease SVR and afterload--> arterial vasodilators such as nitroprusside and hydralazine (apresoline)

66

Explain how the pressure volume loop shifts when there is an increase in contractility. What interventions cause this?

increased contractility--> PV loop shifts to higher pressures (upward) and smaller volumes (leftward)

caused by: drugs that increase contractility--> positive inotropes and include digitalis and calcium

67

Explain how the pressure volume loop shifts when there is an decrease in contractility. What interventions cause this?

decreased contractility--> PV loop shifts to lower pressures (downward) and larger volumes (rightward)

caused by: contractility is decreased in heart failure

68

What is another name for cardiomyopathy?

IHSS--> idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis

69

What is seen in the PV loop of a patient with IHSS or cardiomyopathy?

shift to smaller volumes and larger pressures--> d\t outflow tract obstruction; only IHSS causes this combined shift

70

What is seen in the PV loop with aortic stenosis?

the concentric hypertrophy allows the LV to generate HIGHER pressures, but the LV volume remains about the same as normal--> MORE pressure is required to open the stenotic valve

71

What is seen in the PV loop with mitral stenosis?

LV filling is diminished--> PV loop reflects DECREASED preload (reduced filling, but emptying is about the same as normal)--> d\t the stenotic mitral valve... filling is reduced so volumes are LESS and pressure in the ventricle is LESS b\c there is LESS volume

72

On a PV loop... when the sides are not vertical, it is a _______ problem.

a valve problem

73

For an aortic valve insufficiency (regurgitation) problem... on the PV loop you can draw an ______. If it is a BIG loop, then it is a _____ problem.... if it is a SMALL loop then it is an ______ problem.

"A" (left side of the loop makes the right side of the "A"); chronic; acute

74

For an mitral valve insufficiency (regurgitation) problem... on the PV loop you can draw an ______. If it is a BIG loop, then it is a _____ problem.... if it is a SMALL loop then it is an ______ problem.

"M" (the right side of the loop, makes the right side of the "M"); chronic; acute

75

What are the two primary positive results from giving phenylephrine?

1) increase BP
2) improve coronary perfusion

76

What are the two primary positive results from giving nitroglycerin?

1) dilate veins
2) decrease venous return

77

What happens to baroreceptors in response to increased arterial blood pressure?

they are stretched and activated

78

Afferent action potentials from the baroreceptors of the aortic arch are carried to the brainstem (medulla) centers via the ______ nerve.

vagus

79

Where are baroreceptors found? (2)

1) carotid sinus
2) aortic arch

80

Afferent action potentials from the baroreceptors of the carotid sinuses are carried to the brainstem (medulla) centers via the ______ nerve.

Hering's nerve

81

An ______ in action potentials to the vagus nerve (from baroreceptor stimulation--> increased arterial BP) causes a _______ in action potentials to the sympathetic nerves.

increase; decrease

82

An ______ in action potentials to the vagus nerve (from baroreceptor inactivation--> decreased arterial BP) causes a _______ in action potentials to the sympathetic nerves.

decrease; increase

83

Which baroreceptors are physiologically MORE important and are primarily responsible for minimizing acute BP alterations?

carotid baroreceptors

84

In regards to the baroreceptors reflex.... activation leads to a ______ in sympathetic activity.

DECREASE; parasympathetic prevails

85

In regards to the baroreceptor reflex, the efferents are the ____ nerve to the SA node of the heart, and the ________ nerves to the ventricles of the heart and the systemic vasculature.

vagus, sympathetic

86

_________ is a gaseous substance produced by numerous tissues of the body.

nitric oxide (NO)

87

Nitric oxide is produced by _______ cells of the ______ wall by ____________.

endothelial cells of the vascular wall by constitutive nitric oxide synthase

88

What effect does cGMP have on smooth muscle?

causes it to relax

89

What drugs cause NO to diffuse from vascular endothelial cells into the smooth muscle layer of the vascular wall... activating an enzyme called soluble guanylyl cyclase--> triggering the production of second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate... causing the muscle to relax?

1) nitroglycerine
2) Na Nitroprusside
3) Isosorbide dinitrate

90

What are the two current hypotheses for hydralazine's action?

1) membrane hyperdepolarizing agent via activation of K+ channels
2) alters intracellular calcium via IP3 receptors

91

What is the difference in nitric oxide generating circuits for nitroglycerin versus nitroprusside?

In NTG, the nitric oxide is generated by enzymes in venous endothelium but NOT arterial endothelium..... With nitroprusside, it is found in BOTH arterial and venous vascular circuits
*BOTH drugs produce bronchodilation!!

92

Right heart failure promotes _____ edema and Left heart failure promotes ______ edema.

RHF= systemic edema
LHF= pulmonary edema

93

Name 3 causes of edema formation.

1) increased plasma hydrostatic pressure (from HF)
2) decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure (hypoalbuminemia--> from liver disease)
3) lymphatic obstruction

94

What hemodynamic change is MOST important to avoid in the patient with coronary artery disease?

tachycardia--> increase myocardial O2 consumption and may simultaneously decrease oxygen supply

95

Where is pulse pressure the greatest?

dorsalis pedis--> pulse pressure increases as the arterial pressure waveform passes into more peripheral arterial vessels

96

The area under the arterial pressure curve divided by _____ yields ______.

TIME; MAP

97

Goals for regurgitation is to keep it fast, full, and forward. What are the goals for stenosis?

1) maintain low HR--> maintain NSR (b\c it takes more time for the blood to get out d\t the valve not wanting to open)
2) avoid bradycardia b\c the SV is fixed
3) maintain intravascular volume

98

What is the MOST common cause of LV outflow tract obstruction?

aortic stenosis

99

What is the normal aortic valve area?

2.5-3.5cm2 (remember 2-4)

100

At what aortic valve area does severe aortic stenosis occur?

0.8-1.0cm2

101

At what aortic valve area does critical aortic stenosis occur?

0.5-0.8cm2

102

What happens to oxygen demand and work of the heart with a stenotic aortic valve?

BOTH increased

103

What are the classic symptoms of aortic stenosis? (3)

1) dyspnea on exertion
2) angina
3) orthostatic or exertional syncope

104

With aortic stenosis you can hear a _______ murmur at the _________.

systolic murmur heard at the right second intercostal space with transmission into the neck (over the aortic arch)

105

Spinals and epidurals are ________ with regurgitation.

OK

106

Spinals and epidural are ________ with stenosis.

Not OK--> especially if valve area is <1cm2

107

What is the BEST pressor and induction agent to use with aortic or mitral stenosis?

phenylephrine (d\t its lack of beta activity) and etomidate

108

As the aortic valve area _____, the pt becomes sicker and the pressure gradient ______.

decreases; increases

109

________ is a delayed complication of acute rheumatic fever.

mitral stenosis

110

Remember 2-4-6 for aortic and mitral stenosis.... Why?

normal aortic area 2-4
normal mitral area 4-6

111

Enlarged left atrium d\t mitral stenosis may apply pressure to the _______ and cause hoarseness.

recurrent laryngeal nerve

112

What is another name for RV failure?

cor pulmonale (d\t left sided failure)

113

What are some concerns specific to mitral stenosis?

1) anticoagulation may be needed d\t risk of air emboli from a-fib
2) may need diuretics

114

A _____ murmur can be heard at the _______ or in the ______ during mitral stenosis.

diastolic heart murmur at the apex or in the axilla

115

Murmur master: ARDS

Aortic regurg is a diastolic murmur best heard at the sternal border

116

Murmur master: MRSA

Mitral regurg is a systolic murmur best heard at the apex

117

Murmur master: MSDA

Mitral stenosis is a diastolic murmur best heard at the apex

118

Murmur master: ASS Arch

Aortic stenosis is a systolic murmur best heard at the aortic arch