Flashcards in Cardiac Risk Factors Deck (11):
What are the 3 broad categories of risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
1. medical conditions - DM, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension
2. lifestyle choices- smoking, poor diet, lack of exercise, obesity
3. genetic factors
Since 1980 there has been a decrease in US deaths for coronary disease. Half this change has been attributed to reductions in what 3 risk factors?
1. decreased cholesterol
2. reduced hypertension/BP
3. reduced smoking prevalence
What are the Major Independent risk factors for coronary artery disease?
4. high cholesterol (LDL >200)
5. Advanced age
6. family history
7. AHA: Obesity and physical inactivity
What is the definition of a "low risk state"?
2. no DM
3. BP < 120/80
4. LDL btw 100-130
5. HDL >55 for women >45 for men
6. total cholesterol <200
The effects of elevated serum cholesterol concentration are limited to __________ of which coronary heart disease is the major variety.
Diabetes affects multiple organ systems, but what is the major effect of treated diabetes?
advances atherosclerosis--> coronary heart disease
What is the relationship between LDL-c, total cholesterol and HDL-c levels with increased risk of coronary heart disease?
Quantify the relationship.
there is a consistent direct relationship between LDL and total cholesterol with increased risk of coronary heart disease.
there is an inverse relationship between HDL cholesterol levels and risk of coronary heart disease
1% increase change in serum cholesterol corresponds to a 2% change in incidence of CAD.
What ratio of Total: HDL cholesterol is considered normal?
<3.5 is ideal and over 4.5 is considered adverse.
What factors modify LDL goals?
3. Low HDL
4. family history of early CAD (males <65)
6. Diabetes (risk equivalent to CAD)
Who have most large-scale clinical trials on the effects of cholesterol on CAD followed
Middle age hypercholesterolemic males