Cardio Flashcards Preview

D Flashcards 2 > Cardio > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardio Deck (10):
1

Aortic Stenosis

ESM
Forceful Non-displaced Apex Beat

Quiet A2 (aortic valve sound in S2)
Narrow Pulse Pressure
S4 Tenessee
Decompensation - LVF

2

Mitral Regurgitation

Pansystolic Murmur (apex left lateral position end expiration)
Displaced Apex - volume overload
Soft S1

3

Aortic Regurgitation

Early Diastolic murmur

Apex displaced (volume overload)
Soft S2
Collapsing Pulse
Wide pulse pressure

Quincke’s: capillary pulsation in nail beds
Corrigan’s: visible vigorous carotid pulsation
De Musset’s: head nodding
Traube’s: pistol-shot sound over femorals

4

Mitral Stenosis

Mid-diastolic murmur

Tapping Apex (palpable S1, non-displaced)
Loud S1
Early diastolic opening snap
Malar Flush - back pressure + vasoconstriction
LVF

5

Rheumatic Fever Criteria

Jones Criteria

Major Criteria
 Pancarditis
 Arthritis
 Subcut nodules
 Erythema marginatum
 Sydenham’s chorea

Minor criteria
 Fever
 ↑ESR or ↑CRP
 Arthralgia
 not if arthritis is a major
 Prolonged PR interval
 not if carditis is a major
 Prev rheumatic fever

6

Infective Endocarditis Criteria

Major
1. +ve Blood Culture
 Typical organism in 2 separate cultures, or
 Persistently +ve cultures, e.g. 3, >12h apart
2. Endocardial Involvement
 +ve echo: vegetation, abscess, dehiscence
or
 New valvular regurgitation

Minor
1. Predisposition: cardiac lesion, IVDU
2. Fever >38
3. Emboli: septic infarcts, splinters, Janeway lesions
4. Immune: GN, Osler nodes, Roth spots, RF
5. +ve blood culture not meeting major criteria

7

Left sided Heart Failure

Causes
 1: IHD
 2: Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy
 3: Systemic HTN
 4: Mitral and aortic valve disease

Symptoms
 Fatigue
 Exertional dyspnoea
 Orthopnoea + PND
 Nocturnal cough (± pink, frothy sputum)
 Wt. loss and muscle wasting

Signs
 Cold peripheries ± cyanosis
 Often in AF
 Cardiomegaly c¯ displaced apex
 S3 + tachycardia = gallop rhythm
 Wheeze (cardiac asthma)
 Bibasal creps

8

Right Sided Heart Failure

Causes
 LVF
 Cor pulmonale
 Tricuspid and pulmonary valve disease

Symptoms
 Anorexia and nausea

Signs
 ↑JVP + jugular venous distension
 Tender smooth hepatomegaly (may be pulsatile)
 Pitting oedema
 Ascites

9

Inguinal canal

Inguinal ligament (floor)
aponeurosis of external oblique (anterior wall)
transversalis fascia (posterior wall)
internal oblique (roof)

10

Femoral Canal

lacuna ligament (medial border)
inguinal ligament (anterior border)
femoral vein (lateral border)
pectineal ligament (posterior border)

Contents
- lymphatics - draining deep inguinal nodes
- deep lymph node - lacunar node
- loose connective tissue