CARDIO HW 1c Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CARDIO HW 1c Deck (30):
1

Injury to or disease of the ______________ may cause prolapse of a cardiac valve leaflet, allowing blood to regurgitate from the ventricle into the atrium.
Choose one answer.
A. coronary sulcus
B. chordae tendineae
C. interatrial septum
D. coronary sinus

B

2

It is MOST important to evaluate a cardiac arrhythmia in the context of the:
Choose one answer.
A. patient's heart rate.
B. patient's medical history.
C. patient's overall condition.
D. width of the QRS complex.

C

3

Jugular venous distention in a patient sitting at a 45° angle:
Choose one answer.
A. is not clinically significant.
B. is a sign of reduced preload.
C. suggests left-sided heart failure.
D. indicates right-sided heart compromise.

D

4

Lead I views the ________ wall of the heart, while lead aVF views the _________ wall of the heart.
Choose one answer.
A. lateral, inferior
B. septal, anterior
C. posterior, septal
D. anterior, inferior

A

5

Leads V1 to V3 allow you to view the ________ wall of the left ventricle.
Choose one answer.
A. septal
B. lateral
C. anterior
D. anteroseptal

D

6

Lowering of a significantly elevated blood pressure:
Choose one answer.
A. is best accomplished in a hospital setting.
B. is contraindicated in the prehospital setting.
C. should be initiated in the field with labetalol.
D. is routinely accomplished with nitroglycerin.

A

7

Normal sinus rhythm is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:
Choose one answer.
A. minimal variation between the R-R intervals.
B. QRS complexes that are less than 140 milliseconds.
C. consistent PR intervals and upright P waves.
D. a consistent heart rate between 60 and 100 beats/min.

B

8

Normally, the ST segment should be:
Choose one answer.
A. at the level of the isoelectric line.
B. elevated by no more than 1 mm.
C. depressed by no more than 2 mm.
D. invisible on a normal ECG tracing.

A

9

On the ECG graph paper, 6 seconds is represented by how many large boxes?
Choose one answer.
A. 20
B. 30
C. 40
D. 50

B

10

On the ECG graph paper, amplitude is measured in _____________ and width is measure in ____________.
Choose one answer.
A. centimeters, seconds
B. milliseconds, millimeters
C. seconds, centimeters
D. millimeters, milliseconds

D

11

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is defined as:
Choose one answer.
A. dyspnea that is brought on by excessive movement during sleep.
B. sitting upright in a chair in order to facilitate effective breathing.
C. the inability to function at night due to severe difficulty breathing.
D. acute shortness of breath that suddenly awakens a person from sleep.

D

12

Patients with a heart rate greater than 150 beats/min usually become unstable because of:
Choose one answer.
A. reduced ventricular filling.
B. an increase in the atrial kick.
C. increased right atrial preload.
D. a significantly reduced afterload.

A

13

Q waves are considered abnormal or pathologic if they are:
Choose one answer.
A. greater than 0.02 seconds wide and consistently precede the R wave.
B. more than one third the overall height of the QRS complex in lead II.
C. not visible in leads I or II when the QRS gain sensitivity is increased.
D. present in a patient who is experiencing chest pressure or discomfort.

B

14

Regardless of the patient's presenting cardiac arrest rhythm, the first IV or IO drug that should be given is:
Choose one answer.
A. a vasopressor.
B. calcium chloride.
C. an inotrope.
D. an antidysrhythmic.

A

15

Repolarization begins when:
Choose one answer.
A. the sodium and calcium channels close.
B. calcium ions slowly enter the cardiac cell.
C. potassium ions rapidly escape from the cell.
D. the inside of the cell returns to a positive charge.

A

16

Sinus dysrhythmia is:
Choose one answer.
A. observed in all patients.
B. an irregular sinus rhythm.
C. a sign of myocardial ischemia.
D. most common in hypotensive patients.

B

17

Spironolactone is a:
Choose one answer.
A. beta blocker.
B. vasodilator.
C. diuretic.
D. antiarrhythmic.

C

18

Stable angina:
Choose one answer.
A. typically subsides within 10 to 15 minutes.
B. occurs after a predictable amount of exertion.
C. usually requires both rest and nitroglycerin to subside.
D. is characterized by sharp chest pain rather than pressure.

B

19

Stimulation of alpha and beta receptors affects the:
Choose one answer.
A. heart only.
B. heart and blood vessels.
C. blood vessels and lungs.
D. heart, lungs, and blood vessels

D

20

Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system causes all of the following effects, EXCEPT:
Choose one answer.
A. negative inotropy.
B. increased salivation.
C. dilation of the pupils.
D. negative chronotropy.

C

21

Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system:
Choose one answer.
A. completely blocks the AV node, preventing ventricular depolarization.
B. causes a decrease in the production of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
C. is characterized by a large P wave and a PR interval that is shorter than normal.
D. slows SA nodal discharge and decreases conduction through the AV node.

D

22

The 6-second method for calculating the rate of a cardiac rhythm:
Choose one answer.
A. involves counting the number of QRS complexes in a 6-second strip and multiplying that number by 10.
B. is an accurate method for calculating the heart rate if the cardiac rhythm is grossly irregular and very fast.
C. will yield an estimated heart rate that is typically within 2 to 3 beats per minute of the actual heart rate.
D. takes longer than other methods of calculating the rate and is thus impractical to use with critical patients.

A

23

The ability of the heart to vary the degree of its contraction without stretching is called:
Choose one answer.
A. contractility.
B. chronotropy.
C. automaticity.
D. the Frank-Starling mechanism.

A

24

The administration of dopamine or any other vasopressor drug requires:
Choose one answer.
A. online medical control approval.
B. careful titration and blood pressure monitoring.
C. an electromechanical infusion pump.
D. concomitant crystalloid fluid boluses.

B

25

The AV junction:
Choose one answer.
A. includes the AV node but not the bundle of His.
B. is the dominant and fastest pacemaker in the heart
C. receives its blood supply from the circumflex artery.
D. is composed of the AV node and surrounding tissue.

D

26

The brief pause between the P wave and QRS complex represents:
Choose one answer.
A. depolarization of the inferior part of the atria.
B. the period of time when the atria are repolarizing.
C. full dispersal of electricity throughout both atria.
D. a momentary conduction delay at the AV junction.

D

27

The downslope of the T wave:
Choose one answer.
A. is the point of ventricular repolarization to which a defibrillator is synchronized to deliver electrical energy.
B. is the strongest part of ventricular depolarization and is often the origin of dangerous ventricular arrhythmias.
C. represents a state of absolute ventricular refractoriness in which another impulse cannot cause depolarization.
D. represents a vulnerable period during which a strong impulse could cause depolarization, resulting in a lethal arrhythmia.

D

28

The duration of the QRS complex should be ____ milliseconds or less.
Choose one answer.
A. 100
B. 120
C. 140
D. 150

B

29

The effect on the velocity of electrical conduction is referred to as the _________ effect.
Choose one answer.
A. inotropic
B. dromotropic
C. chronotropic
D. conductivity

B

30

The farther removed the conduction tissue is from the SA node:
Choose one answer.
A. the slower its intrinsic rate of firing.
B. the longer the PR interval will be.
C. the faster its intrinsic rate of firing.
D. the narrower the QRS complex will be.

A