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Flashcards in Cardio W2 Deck (6)
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1

Classification for hypertensive retinopathy

I: narrowing of arteriole, AV ratio >1:2
II: narrowing of arteriole, AV ratio <1:2/ AV nicking
III: bilateral soft exudates or flame haemorrhages
IV: Bilateral optic nerve oedema

2

Secondary causes of hypertension

Hyperaldosteronism
Cushing's Syndrome
Coarction of the Aorta
Renovascular disease
Phaechromocytoma
Renal disease

3

s3

early diastolic low frequency filling sound
physiological in the young
sign of LV systolic dysfunction in old

4

s4

always pathological
blood filling against stiff LV wall
hypertension, aortic stenosis, LV hypertrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy

5

Clinical signs of hypertension

Loud 2nd aortic sound
4th heart sound
LV impulse
hypertensive retinopathy

6

Signs of end-organ damage

renal failure
hypertensive retinopathy
cerebrovascular disease- stroke
cardiovascular disease- MI, HF