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Flashcards in cardiology Deck (88):
1

what must a doctor do before putting a patient on quinadine

they need to digitilize the person first because the dig takes care of the heart rate.  

2

quinidine

exacabates CHF 

causes thrombocyteapenia

extends refractory period 

 

3

Norpace side effects 

dry mouth

exacabates CHF

urinary retention 

thrombocytopenia

4

Lidocaine for the heart 

has to be preservative free (No epinephrine) 

makes it harder for a patient to go into a v fib

treats pvc's

prevents patient from going into v tach

anestasizes the heart 

0.5-1 mg/kg depending on your person 

5

lidocaine IV can cause 

causes seizures 

push over 1-2 minutes (preferably 2 minutes)

can cause confusion (especially in elderly)

can get a psychosis

cardiovascular hypotension

bradycardia

possible blocks and arrests

other arrthymias 

double vision 

6

important about lidocaine

make sure you pick the right lidocaine

make sure you put it in its own line.  Do not mix with other drugs in IV line 

7

class 1 C drugs. 

This class of drugs are used when other things don't work.  

Used for PAF, Life threatening ventricular arrhythmias.  150 to 300 mg po q. 8hrs.

Monitor for increase in arrhythmias, CNS effects ( dizziness, anxiety, ataxia, confusion, and seizures.

Used for life threatening ventricular arrhythmias.  Can cause new or worse arrhythmias.  CHF because of negative inotropic effect.  Use for AF, PSVT.

100mg po BID.  Maximum dose of 400 mg.

Monitor for increase & severity of arrhythmia. Monitor for CHF, tremors,

dizziness and visual disturbances. 

8

class 1 c drugs 

Agents:

   .  Flecainide  (Tambacor)

   .  Propafenone hydrochloride ( Rythmol )

Action:

   .  Most potent Class I agents.  Slows conduction through atria , purkingee   

     system and ventricals.  Decreases repolarization rate.  Decreases contractility.

   .  Causes decrease in PVCS and VT

9

class 2 Beta blockers 

Action:

   .  Only group of antiarrhythmics shown to prolong life

   .  Beta 1 receptors in heart attach to calcium channels.  Blockage decreases Ca++

      influx.  Depresses phase 4 of depolarization.  Decreases automaticity, heart rate,

      and BP.  Decreases AV conduction.

Agents:

   .  Propranolol  ( Inderal )—non selective

   .  Metoprolol  ( Lopressor )---selective

   .  Atenolol  ( Tenormin )

   .  Sotalol ( Betapace )

Adverse effects:

   .  CV:  Bradycardia, hypotension, edema, CHF, Pulmonary Edema ,

   .  Resp:  Bronchospasm

   .  CNS:  Fatigue, weakness, dizziness, mental changes, insomnia, confusion

   .  GI:  Constipation, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting

   .  GU:  Impotence

endocrine:  blood sugar variations 

10

negative inotropic effect causes 

heart failure

11

 dromotropic effect causes 

(1) Refers to a change in the speed of conduction through the AV junction
(2) A positive dromotropic effect results in an increase in AV conduction velocity
(3) A negative dromotropic effect results in a decrease in AV conduction velocity

12

inotropic effect

(1) Refers to a change in myocardial contractility
(2) A positive inotropic effect results in an increase in myocardial contractility
(3) A negative inotropic effect results in a decrease in myocardial contratility

13

chronotropic effect 

(1) Refers to a change in heart rate
(2) A positive chronotropic effect refers to an increase in heart rate
(3) A negative chronotropic effect refers to a decrease in heart rate

14

interactions with Beta Blockers 

.  Caution with other antiarrhythmics.  Can cause additive effects.

   .  NSAIDS may decrease antihypertensive effect.

   .  Cimetidine can increase the effect of inderal.

   .  In diabetics can mask signs of hypoglycemia.

15

nursing considerations for Beta Blockers 

   .  Monitor vital signs frequently during period of adjustment.  Notify MD if pulse

      falls below 50 to 60 beats / minute and / or SBP falls below 90 to 100.

   .  If meds given IV must be on a monitor during administration and for several

      hours later.  Monitor hepatic, renal and CBC function.

   .  Monitor I&O, daily weight, and check for CHF.

   .  Give with meals or immediately after eatting.  Extended release tablets should

       be swallowed whole.  Do not crush.

16

potassium channel blockers 

Action:  Block potassium channels, prolong repolarization and refractory

               periods.  They effect fast tissue and commonly are used to manage

               difficult to treat arrhythmias.

Agent:  Amiodarone ( Cordarone)

              Ibutilide fumarate ( Corvert )

17

potassium channel blockers 

                                           ex.   AMIODARONE

 

Use:

   .  Treatment of life threatening recurrent V-Fib and hemdynamically unstable

      V-Tach and SPVT, AF, PAF.

Dose:  PO—800 to1600 mg/ day for 1 to 3 wk and reduce to 600 to 800 mg/ day

            for 5 wks:  usual maintenance dose, 400 mg/ day.

            IV:  Give through central line if possible.

18

contraindications of potassium channel blockers 

   .  Severe sinus bradycardia since drug slows heart rate by interfering with SA

      nodal firing.  AV nodal blockage since drug slows conduction through AV

      node.  May cause complete heart block resistant to atropine. 

19

precautions for potassium channel blockers 

CHF may be worsened.  Hypokalemia may block amiodarone action.

Side Effects / Adverse reactions:

   .  CNS—ataxia, tremors

   .  CV-----SA & AV blockage, bradycardia, myocardial depression, IV-hypotension

   .  EYE---small corneal deposits that can impair vision may develop with long term

                   use.  When drug is discontinued deposits may slowly disappear.

   .  GI------anorexia, nausea, constipation, abdominal pain

   .  PULMONARY—pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonitis

   .  SKIN---light sensitivity caused by crystals deposited in the skin producing a

                    bluish color

20

nursing considerations for potassium channel blockers 

.  Assess EKG , BP and pulse

   .  Assess lung sounds.  Rales, decreased lung sounds or friction rub may indicate

      pulmonary toxicity.  Check weight, I&O and signs of CHF

   .  Check skin for bluish coloration.  Check gait and check for tremors

   .  Eye exam should be done before and at regular intervals during therapy.  Avoid

      sunbathing, tanning salons because of photosensitivity.  Limit outdoor activity

      between 10 am and 2 pm.

   .  Increase dietary intake of fruit, fiber , fluids and exercise to combat  

      constipation.

   .  Missed dose:  Omit.  Do not double up on missed dose.  Notify MD if two or

       more doses are missed. 

21

covert

potassium channel blocker 

Used for AF, Atrial Flutter.  1mg IV over 10 min. for patients > 60kg.  0.01mg/kg for patients < 60 kg over 10 mg min.  Stop infusion as soon as arrhythmia is stopped or if sustained VT or marked QT prolongation.

22

class 1 sodium channel blockers 

.  Decrease rate of conduction

.  Prolongs action potential duration

.  Reduces speed of impulse conduction

.  For atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias

 

CLASS  Ia

 

AGENTS

.  Procainamide  ( Pronestyl )

.  Disopyramide  ( Norpace )

.  Quinidine  ( Quinidex )

23

indications of sodium channel blockers 

ex: PROCAINAMIDE  (PRONESTYL )

Indications:

  Ventricular arrhythmias

      .  Stable ventricular tachycardia

      .  Premature ventricular contractions

      .  Ventricular fibrillation

   Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias

      .   PSVT,  PAT,  Junctional tachs. , 

      .   Atrial flutter and fibrillation

24

actions of sodium channel blockers 

 

      .   Slows conduction.  Is a negative inotrope with a ischemic myocardium

      .   Decreases myocardial excitability 

      .   Is often used as drug of choice if resistance to lidocaine

Contraindicated in patient with myasthenia gravis.

Caution with patients with MI, CHF, Digoxin intoxication.

25

adverse effects of sodium channel blockers

Adverse effects:

      .  Myocardial depression.  Prolongs duration of QRS, QT interval, AV           

         conduction.

      .  Hypersensitivity.  Confusion, seizures, dizziness.

   .  Hypotension  if given too fast IV.  Blood dyscrasias like thrombocytopenia.

   .  Gastric:  anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.

Nursing:

   .  PO:  Give with meals or snack to lessen GI distress.

   .  Monitor EKG, BP, and pulse continously throughout IV administration.

   .  Keep patient supine during IV admininstration.  Assess QRS and QT intervals.

   .  When IV, discontinue if QT increases by 50% or PR more than .20 second or if

       BP drops 15mm Hg. 

26

QUINIDINE (QUINIDEX)

action: 

   .  Slows conduction through cardiac tissue.  Refractory period is lengthened

       especially in atria.  Used for atrial flutter or fibrillation to maintain sinus

       rhythm. 

   .   Has anticholinergic effect by inhibiting vagal action on SA and AV nodes.

       Sinus node may accelerate causing a dangerous sinus tachycardia.  If

       Quinidine is given to people with A. Flutter or A. Fibrillation, they should be

       digitalized  first to slow the SA and AV nodes.

Dosage:

   .  Quinidine Sulfate—200 to 400 mg every 4 to 6 hours.

   .  Sustained release ( Quindex Extentabs—300 to 600 mg every 8 to 12 hours.

   .  Quinidine Gluconate—324mg every 6 to 8 hours.

   .  Quinaglute 324mg every 6 to 8 hours IM or IV

Adverse Effects:

   .  Most common effect is diarrhea.  May have nausea and vomiting.

   .  Can cause thrombocytopenia.

   .  Hypotension, tinnitus, vertigo, visual disturbances, confusion, psychosis.

   .  Arrhythmias like SA and AV blocks, sinus arrest.

   .  Asthma like symptoms.  Systemic Lupus like symptoms.

Interactions:

   .  Will increase digoxin levels.  Nifedipine will decrease Quinidine levels.

Nursing:

   .  Prior to giving drug need baseline QT interval since drug can prolong it.

   .  Give with meals to decrease GI upset.  Do not crush sustained release.

   .  Monitor vital signs, EKG and intake and output.  Monitor platelets.

   .  Monitor for CHF.

27

DISOPYRAMIDE ( NORPACE )

Action:

   .  Prolongs refractory period.  Decreases myocardial contractility.  Has    

      anticholinergic effect so patients with A. Flutter and A. Fibrillation

      should be digitalized first.

                                                                 

Adverse effects:

   .  Neuro:  Blurred vision, dizziness, headache, agitation, depression.

   .  Cardio:   Conduction disturbances, hypotension, chest pain, CHF, fatigue,

       edema, weight gain.

   .  GI:  Dry mouth, constipation, nausea, pain, bloating, anorexia, diarrhea.

   .  Resp:  SOB

   .   Thrompocytopenia

   .  Renal:  Urinary retention, hesitancy,and frequency

   .  Endocrine:  Hypoglycemia

   .  Rash

Nursing:

   .  Monitor vital signs, EKG, QRS and QT intervals, I and O, weight.

   .  Monitor for CHF.  Check platelets.

   .  Sugarless gum for dry mouth

   .  Take on empty stomach

   .  Eat high fiber diet.  Bulk laxatives to treat constipation.

   .  Monitor potassium levels.  Ineffectve in hypokalemia.  Toxic with hyperkalemia.

28

class 1 b drugs 

Agents:

   .  Lidocaine (Xylocaine)

   .  Tocainide  ( Tonocard)

   .  Mexiletine ( Mexitil)

29

LIDOCAINE ( XYLOCAINE )

 

Action:

   .  Elevates ventricular fibrillation threshold

   .  Treats symptomatic PVCS.  Suppresses ventricular tachycardia.

Dosage:

   .  Adult:  1mg/kg to 1.5 mg/kg bolus IV followed by 0.5 mg to 0.75/kg in 10 minutes.  About 50 to  100mg.  Reduce bolus dose by 5% in patients with CHF.

   .  Infusion rate is 1 to 4 mg/minute.  Can give endotracheal if IV not available.

   .  Onset of action is 30 to 60 seconds IV

   .  Therapeutic level is 1.5 to 6 ug/ml

Adverse effects:

   .  CNS:  Paresthesias, numbness, agitation, confusion, seizures.

   .  CV:  Hypotension, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, arrhythmias

   .  GI:  vomiting

   .  Integ:  Phlebitis

Nursing;

   .  Monitor vital signs, EKG, QRS and  QT levels

                                                              (3)

   .  Monitor serum levels.  Signs of toxicity include confusion, excitation, blurred

     or double vision, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, tremors, convulsions, difficulty

      breathing.

   .  Use only 1% or 2% solutions without epinephrine or preservative.

   .  Administer over 1 to 2 minutes .  If given too fast, increase risk of seizures.

   .  Use infusion pump.  Do not mix with other drugs.

30

calcium channel blockers (class IV)

Action:  These drugs work by inhibiting the slow channel pathways or the calcium

                Dependent channels.  By doing this they depress phase 4 depolarization.

                Therefore these drugs:

                 .  Prolong AV node effective refractory period

                 .  decrease AV node conduction and reduce rapid ventricular conduction

             due to A. Flutter, AF.  Used for SVT

                    

Agents:

   .  Ditiazem ( Cardizem )

   .  Verapamil ( Calan )

31

DILTIAZEM ( CARDIZEM )

Use:

   .  Temporary control of rapid ventricular response in a patient with A. FIB or

      A. Flutter.   Supraventricular arrhythmias

   .  Vasospastic angina.  Essential Hypertension

   .  Unlabled use—prevention of reinfarction in non Q wave MI

Contraindications:

   .  Hypersensitivity, sick sinus syndrome, 2nd or 3rd Heart , severe hypotension ( less

        than 90/60 ).  Patients undergoing cranial surgery, bleeding aneurysms

Caution:

   .  CHF especially if on beta blocker.  Conduction abnormalities.  Renal or

     hepatic impairment

Dose:

   .  IV—bolus dose 0.25mg/kg over 2 minutes; second dose 0.35mg/kg over

     2 minutes after 15 minutes prn; then 5-10 mg/hr or higher by continuous

     infusion

   .  PO---usual dose 180 to 360 mg/day in divided doses or 60 to 120 mg

     sustained release

Adverse / Side effects:

   .  CNS—headache, fatique, dizziness, drowsiness, nervousness, insomnia,

     confusion, tremor, gait abnormality  

   .  CV—edema, arrhythmias, angina, 2nd and 3rd degree heart block, bradycardia,

               CHF, hypotension, palpitations, syncope, flushing

   .  GI –nausea, constipation, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, impaired taste,  

             increased weight.

   .Skin rash

Drug Interactions:

   .  Increases digoxin levels.  Additive effects on AV conduction with beta blocker.

   .  Cimetidine can increase cardizem levels

Nursing:

   .  Withhold drug if SBP is< 90 or diastolic is < 60 . Monitor for arrhythmias, heart

      blocks.  Position changes slowly.  Avoid driving until reaction to drug is known.

      Keep follow up appointments.

   .  PO—AC and HS.  IV—may be given direct as bolus over 2 minutes.  May be

      continuous IV infusion.  Recommended rate-5 to 15 mg/hr.  Can add to D5W,

      NS and combos.

32

VERAPAMIL ( CALAN )

Dose:   .  PO—start with 80mg 3 to 4 times daily; daily range 240 to 480 mg..

   .  IV---5 to 10 mg bolus over 2 minutes; repeat dose of <   10 mg may be given after

      30 minutes

Interactions:

   .  Beta blockers increase risk of CHF,  bradycardia,heart block

   .  Increases digoxin levels.

   .  Lithium and cyclospore may be increased to toxic levels.

Nursing:

   .  PO—with food to decrease GI ditress.  Capsules can be opened & sprinkled on                                                                                    

       food.  Do not dissolve or chew capsule.

   .  Transient asymptomatic hypotension may accompany IV bolus.  Have patient

       remain in recumberant position for at least 1 hour after dose.

                                                    (7)

  .   Same as with cardizem

33

ADENOSINE ( ADENOCARD )

Action:

   .  Slows impulse formation in SA node.  Slows conduction time through AV node.

      Depresses left ventricular function and restores NSR.

   .  General cardiac depressant

Uses:

   .  Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

Precautions:

   .  Sick sinus syndrome may be worsened by drug and produce sinus arrest

Dosage:

   .  IV—6 mg by rapid push with saline flush over 1 to 2 seconds.  If not effective,

      12 mg by rapid push may be given  2 minutes later;  repeat once if necessary

Side Effects:

   .  Arrhythmias , flushing, heart block, chest pain, SOB, cough, dizziness ,

      numbness, tingling in arms.

Nursing:

   .  Continuous EKG.  Monitor BP and pulse, lung sounds, respiratory 

34

ATROPINE SULFATE

 

Used for bradycardia and heart block.  0.5 to 1mg IV bolus may be repeated every 3 to 5 min up to 0.04mg/kg.  Monitor heart rate and rhythm.  Assess for chest pain, urinary retention.

35

inotropic 

force of contraction

positive inotropic increases the force

negative inotropic decreases the force 

36

dromotropic 

conduction pattern

negative dromotropic slows conduction

positive dromotropic speeds up contraction

conduction goes from arrythmia to heart block 

37

Chronotropic

heart rate (can go both ways)

positive chronotropic  speeds up heart rate

negative chronotropic slows down heart rate 

38

negative inotropic

if contraction not forceful enough blood backs up causing heart failure

39

when starting a drip 

know baseline QT interval 

40

if there is 50% or more distance between 2 complexes

may be a block 

41

cardioversion

used for every rhythm that has a T wave

 

42

defribilization

only for v fib (only only only)

before you shock someone yell all clear and make sure you are not touching the patient 

43

sodium channel blockers 

stabilize membranes 

decreases irritation 

decreases etopic beats from starting 

44

beta 2

lungs

45

beta 1

heart 

46

lopresser IV 

5mg (3 bolus') then PO

47

if adenosine doesnt work 

cardiovert 

48

anatomy and physiology of an MI

.  Sudden blockage of one of the branches of

           the coronary arteries.  When blood flow

           acutely decreases by 80% to 90% ischemia

           develops.

     b.  If blood flow is not restored myocardial

          tissue necrosis can happen over a period

          of hours.

49

what rhythm are patients usually in with an M.I. 

V. Fib

50

M.I. anatomy and physiology 

Can result in sudden death or gradual

           scarring over necrotic area.

     d.  Most MIs are secondary to thrombus

           formation.  Other factors are coronary

           artery spasm, platelet aggregation, and

           emboli.

      e.  Cardiac cells can withstand ischemia

            about 20 minutes before injury occurs.

51

during an M.I.

Within 4 to 6 hours the entire thickness of

         the heart will become necrotic.

52

Around the area of infarction there are

          two zones:

                   Zone of Injury

               Zone of ischemia

53

necrotic tissue is 

electrically inert 

54

zone of ischemia 

really electrically unstable 

thats why the first 72 hours after an M.I. is so important because that ischemic tissue is so unstable and arrthymic 

55

acute coronary syndrome


•When ischemia prolonged and not immediately reversible, ACS develops.
•Encompasses a spectrum of unstable angina,  non-ST segment elevation  Myocardial Infarction ( NSTEMI ) and ST segment elevation Myocardial In farction.
•Reflects the relationship among these disorders.
 

56

pathology of an MI


•Ischemia causes a decrease in cardiac functioning.
•Can produce a permanent loss of contractile function in the injured area.
•Cardiogenic shock can develop from decreased cardiac output and decreased contractility and pumping capacity.
•Actual extent of MI depends on collateral circulation, anaerobic metabolism and workload demands on the myocardium.
 

57

promestyl

iv bolus

give Over 5 minutes

if too fast causes seizures, blocks, hypotension

58

anterior wall MI

absolute worst MI

.  Obstruction of left anterior descending  

         artery.  25% of all MIs.  Highest mortality.

    b.  Most likely to cause left ventricular heart

         failure and ventricular dysrhythmias.

    c.  People with anterior MI more likely to die

         in the first year  after the MI than those with other

         MIs.

    d.  EKG shows ST elevations, abnormal Q waves.

59

inferior wall MI

right sided

Results from occlusion of right coronary

         artery.  Is 17% of all MIs.  10% mortality

         rate.

    b.  About 1/3 have right ventricular MI and

         right ventricular failure.

    c.  EKG can show ST and T wave changes and

         Q waves.

(T wave inverts, thats NOT NORmal)

60

posterior and lateral wall MI's

least complications


•Result from obstruction of the circumflex

    artery.

•Posterior MI is 2% all MIs.  Is uncommon.
•Lateral wall MIs have the least complications.

61

gender differences in acute coronary syndrome

(Men)

Men are developing CAD at a younger age

         than women and their death rates are

         declining.

    b.  Initial cardiac event is more often MI than

         angina.

    c.  Have higher rate of left ventricular

         hypertrophy.

    d.  Have greater collateral circulation.

62

gender differences in acute coronary syndrome

(Women)

CAD causes more deaths in women than

         men.  Usually older and sicker with first

         MI. 

    b.  Initial cardiac event more often angina.

    c.  After menopause risk of MI quadruples.

         Prior to menopause have higher HDL levels

         than men.  After, LDL levels increase.

Fewer women than men present with

 

         classic symptoms of MI.  Fatigue often

         1st sign of ACS.  C/o palpitations  more

         than men.

    e.  More likely to experience fatal cardiac

         event within 1st year after an MI.

    f.  Delay longer before seeking medical help.


•Have higher mortality rate and

             complications after CABG surgery.

        h.  Those on oral contraceptives and who

              smoke at greater risk for MI.

63

gerontologic considerations with an MI 


•May have decreased responses to neurotransmitters so often pain is atypical.  May have jaw pain of faint.
•Have had time to develop collateral circulation so may not have lethal complications.
 

64

cultural and ethnic consideration for MI's


•White, middle-aged men have highest incidence of CAD.
•African Americans have early age onset od CAD.
•African American women have higher incidence and death rate r/t CAD than white women.
•African Americans have more severe CAD than whites.

•Native Americans under 35 yrs have twice heart disease mortality as other Americans r/t obesity and diabetes.
•Hispanics have lower death rates from heart disease than non Hispanic whites.
 

65

Risk Factors for CAD


•Non Modifiable:

  Age

  Gender (men > women until 60 yr)

  Ethnicity (whites > African Americans)

  Genetic predisposition and family history of heart disease)


•Modifiable Risk Factors:

  Elevated serum lipids

  Hypertension:  140/90 or greater

  Smoking

  Physical inactivity

  Obesity:  waist circumference greater than 39.8 in men & 34.3 in women.


•Contributing factors:

  Diabetes Mellitus

  Fasting blood sugar > 110 mg/di

  Psychologic states

  Homocysteine levels-if elevated can contribute to atherosclerosis

 

66

stages of MI healing 


•Onset until 3rd day

  Acute tissue degeneration.  Infarct area

  soft, mushy & necrotic.  Dead tissue

  electrically inert.  Peri-infarct area ischemic

  and electrically unstable.

  Critical time period-majority of deaths

  from dysrhythmias.

67

stages of MI healing 


•4th to 7th day:

  Softening of infarct area.  Danger of

  aneurysm formation.

•8th to 10th day:

  Newly formed capillaries develop around

  infarct but it is 2 to 3 weeks before any

  significant circulation.

68

stages of MI healing 


•11th day on:

  Collagen forms about 12th day.  Rupture

  of ventricle possible from onset 14th day.

  Takes 3 to 4 weeks before scar is firm.

  Takes 2 to 3 months before scar is at

  maximum strength.

69

clinical manifestations of an MI 


•Severe continuous chest pain not relieved by nitroglycerine or rest.
•Shortness of breath, pallor, cold clammy diaphoresis, dizziness, nausea, vomiting,  BP changes, dysrhythmias, cyanosis, restlessness, and intense anxiety.
•Women may experience heaviness, squeezing type of chest pain.  May have sharp, fleeting pain that returns.  May have pain in jaw, neck, back & shoulder.  Often have palpitations, may faint, nausea & vomiting
 

70

Deviations in the manifestations of an MI


•Patients with diabetes may have dull pain r/t neuropathies.
•African Americans may have dyspnea as major symptom.
•Elderly may have mild or absent pain.  May have associative symptoms like SOB.  Patients over 80 may display confusion or disorientation with decreased cardiac output.
 

71

diagnostic evaluation 


•Electrocardiogram-serial readings to monitor evolution of MI.
•Troponin Levels-establishes diagnosis of MI.
•Cardiac Enzymes-CK (Creatine Kinase).
•Isoenzymes:

  CK-MB-Heart

•Myoglobulin
•White blood cell count, sedimentation rate


•Coronary Angiography- patient with NSTEMI may have this to evaluate extent of MI.
•Stress Test & Echocardiograms-may need to do dobutamine  (Dobutex) stress echocardiogram if patient unable to exercise.
 

72

with an MI the 

st segment elevates

T wave inversion 

73

with ischemia of the heart

st segment depression

T wave inversion

74

what meds do they hold for Heart tests 

usually beta blockers 

75

goals for med management of MI 


•Minimize myocardial damage, relieve pain & provide rest
•Prevent complications
 

76

emergency management of an MI 


•Ensure patent airway.  Oxygen at 2 to 4 L via nasal cannula.
•Insert 2 IV catheters.
•Obtain ECG.  Place on monitor.
•Assess for pain (PQRST)
•Nitro. sl and aspirin if not already done by EMTs.  Morphine for pain.
•Baseline blood work (cardiac markers) & chest xray
•Assess for antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and thrombolytic therapy.
•Give beta blocker and antidysrhythmic drugs as needed.
 

77

ongoing monitoring of an MI 


•Monitor vital signs, level of consciousness, cardiac rhythm, and O2 sat
•Monitor response to medications.  Remedicate or titrate medications as indicated.
•Provide emotional support and reassurance to patient and family.
•Explain all procedures/interventions to patient in simple terms.

•Anticipate need for intubation if respiratory distress is evident.
•Prepare for CPR, defibrillation, cardioversion and transcutaneous pacing as indicated.
 

78

thrombolytic therapy 


•Used to dissolve the thrombi in coronary arteries and to restore blood flow.
•Most effective if done within 4 to 6 hours after start of chest pain where there is evidence of hyperacute or acute ECG changes in 2 or more leads.
•Works directly or indirectly to convert plasminogen to plasmin, an enzyme that acts to digest the fibrin matrix of clots.
 

79

Thrombolytic side effects/adverse reactions


•Hemorrhage and anemia
•Hypotension, fever
•Bronchospasm, anaphylaxis
•Periorbital swelling, itching, urticaria, headache
•Reperfusion dsyrhythmias
 

80

contraindications for thrombolytic therapy 


•Absolute:

  Active internal bleeding

  History of cerebral aneurysm, brain tumor,

  previous cerebral hemorrhage

  Ischemic stroke within 3 months.

  Significant closed head or facial trauma

  within 3 months

  Aortic dissection

 


•Relative Contraindications:

  Active peptic ulcer disease

  Current use of anticoagulants

  Pregnancy

  Ischemic stroke over 3 months ago,

  dementia, intracranial pathology

  Recent internal bleeding within 2 to 4

  weeks.  Serious systemic disease.

Uncontrolled hypertension over 180/110

  Prolonged CPR

  Patients who weigh less than 65 kg have to

  dose adjusted because of increased

  likelihood of bleeding.

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nursing implications of thrombolytic therapy 


•Prior to treatment:

  Assess vs, neuro, and cardiac rhythm.

  Patient needs two IV lines

  Draw required labs.  Avoid non essential

  punctures.

  Don’t shake the drug.  It will foam.

•During treatment:

  Assess vs, neuro, cardiac rhythm q 15 min.

  Check for signs of bleeding

  Monitor lab values

•After treatment:

  Assess vs, neuro, cardiac rhythm q 15 min.

  then q 2 hours for 24 hours

  Monitor for signs of bleeding for 72 hours.

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signs of reperfusion (thrombolytic therapy)


•Abrupt cessation of chest pain
•Resolution of ST elevation/depression
•Rapid rise of CK-MB
•Reperfusion dysrhythmias---generally self limiting
 

83

complications of thrombolytic therapy 


•Reocclusion of the artery.  May start heparin therapy to prevent this.
•Bleeding
 

84

nitroglycerine drug therapy 


•May be used short term to reduce the infarct size, decrease heart workload and increase blood supply.
•Hypotension, reflex tachycardia are side effects so BP and heart rate are monitored closely and drug is carefully titrated,
•Want to keep BP above 90 systolic and heart rate below 110.
 

85

morphine sulfate 


•Given for chest pain unrelieved by nitroglycerine.  Is a vasodilator so decreases cardiac workload by lowering myocardial oxygen consumption.
•Reduces contractility, BP and heart rate
•Reduces fear and anxiety
•In rare cases can depress respirations.
 

86

good thing about TPA

specific.  Goes right for the clot 

87

Drug therapy


•Beta blockers
•Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
•Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists
•Aspirin
•Anticoagulants
•Antidysrhythmic drugs
•Stool Softners
•Lipid lowering drugs
 

88

nursing care for drug therapy


•Continue to monitor vs, cardiac rhythm, response to drug therapy.
•Space activities with rest
•After 48 hrs encourage gradual increase in self care activities.  Monitor response to activity ie. Vs, O2 sat, changes in cardiac rhythm, chest pain.
•Decrease meal time fatigue

  Small, frequent meals, no very hot or cold

  foods.  Sufficient time for meals


•Begin rehab teaching early
•Encourage and supervise increased activity level.

  Start with lying & sitting exercises

  Increase length of ambulation

  Encourage exercise for 20 minutes twice a

  day.

•Teach patient to monitor pulse during exercises and to stop if pulse doesn’t  increase or if it rises to 20 over resting pulse.
•Reinforce plans for home activity program