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Flashcards in CARDIOLOGY Deck (73)
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1

Triad of Rupture Aneurysm

Left flank pain
Hypotension
Pulsation mass

2

Diagnostic Triad of Wolf-Parkinson-White (WPW) ECG Pattern

Wide QRS complex
Relatively short PR interval
Slurring of the initial part of the QRS complex (delta wave

3

Triad of Chronic Renal Failure in ECG

Peaked T waves (hyperkalemia)
Long QT due to ST segment lenthening (hypocalcemia)
LVH (systemic hypertension)

4

Three principal features of tamponade (BECK’s triad)

Hypotension
Soft / absent heart soundJugular venous distension with a prominent x-descent but an absent y-descent

5

Plaques that have caused fatal thrombosis tend to have

Thin fibrous caps
Relatively large lipid cores
High content of macrophages

6

Triad of Buerger disease

Claudication of the affected extremity
Raynaud phenomenon
Migratory superficial vein thrombophlebitis

7

Virchow triad

Stasis
Vascular/endothelial damage
Hypercoagulability

8

Clinical syndrome of hemochromatosis

Cirrhosis
Diabetes
Hypogonadism

9

Dressler’s triad (post MI pericarditis)

Fever
Pleuritic pain
Pericardial effusion

10

Phases of the cardiac action potential

Phase 0: Depolarization (due to rapid Na influx)
Phase 1: Partial Repolarization (Due to K efflux)
Phase 2: Plateau (K efflux balanced by Ca influx)
Phase 3: Complete Repolarization (due to K efflux)
Phase 4: Resting Membrane potential

11

Has prolongation of PR interval before dropped QRS complex

Mobitz type I

12

Has no prolongation of PR interval before dropped QRS complex

Mobitz II

13

Class of antiarrhythmic drug
Binds to activated Na channels & blocks flow of Na ions in to cardiac myocyte (prolongs action potential)
Used for A-fib, atrial flutter, v-tach

Class IA
Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide
(MN: Quiapo Police Department)

14

Class of anti-arrhythmic drug
Bind to both activated and inactivated Na channels and blocks the flow of Na ions into the cardiac myocyte (shortens action potential)
Use: Post-ischemic arrhythmia, V-fib, V-tach

Class IB
Lidocaine, Mexiletine, Tocainide

15

Class of anti-arrhythmic drug
Binds to activated Na channels and blocks flow of Na ions into cardiac myocyte (no effect on action potential)
Use: treatment of severe refractory ventricular arrhythmia

Class IC
Flecainide, Encainid, Propafenone

16

Class of anti-arrhythmic drug
Blocks beta-adrenergic receptors

Class II
-olol group

17

Class of antiarrhythmic drug
Binds to K channels and blocks flow of K in myocyte (prolongs action potential)

Class III
Bretylium, Ibutilide, Amiodarone, Sotalol (BIAS)

18

Class of anti-arrhythmic drug
Blocks voltage-gated Ca channels thereby blocking the flow of Ca into the cell
Use: supraventricular tachycardia, rate reduction in patients with atrial fibrillation

Class IV
Verapamil, Diltiazem

19

Drugs for HF that increases contractility

Digoxin
Dobutamine
Milrinone

20

Drugs for HF that reduces preload

Diuretics
Vasodilator (e.g. nitrates, hydralazine)
Ace inhibitors/ ARBs

21

Drugs for HF that reduces afterload

Diuretics
Vasodilator
ACE inhibitors/ ARBS
Beta blockers

22

Most common cause of systolic dysfunction that lads to L-sided HF

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

23

Most common cause of diastolic dysfunction that leads to L-sided HF

Concentric LVH due to HPN

24

Most common cause of R-sided HF

L-sided HF

25

Earlier she cardinal symptom of L-side HF

Dyspnea

26

Earliest Cardinal sign of L-sided HF

L-sided S3

27

Most sensitive index of cardiac function

Ejection fraction

28

Single most important bedside measurement to estimate volume status

JVP (internal jugular vein is preferred)

29

Cardinal symptoms of HF

Fatigue
Shortness of breath

30

Most important mechanism f dyspnea in HF

Pulmonary congestion with accumulation of interstial or intra-alveolar fluid, which activates juxtacapillary J receptors