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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (41):
1

Left Sided Heart Failure S/S

Fluid in Lungs(rhales) difficulty breathing/hypoxia, fatigue during exertion, productive cough (pink frothy sputum possibly) , paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea (diff breathing while lying down), V/S may or may not see hypotension, Hypertension,
LSHF Blood flow b4 left side of heart will begin to back up systemically.





2

Right Sided Heart Failure S/S

*LOW BP *, CLEAR LS is RSHF only,in preload-blood flow back up systemically b4 right side, JVD, pedal edema, *LOW BP * Enlargement of organs-spleenomegaly,hepatomegaly blood is backing up into these organs. weight gain, ascites, fluid retention





3

LSHF+ RSHF=

CHF-is combination of both S/S

4

LSHF duration...

doesn't stay LSHF for long after awhile it progresses to to Right side and becomes CHF

5

Acute Pulmonary Edema

is acute LSHF

6

LSHF TX

perfusing-CPAP & Nitro
Non perfusing- CPAP & Dope

7

RSHF TX

No NITRO, fluids(because of decreased pre-load) ) 02

8

Cor Pulmonale

is failure of the right side of heart brought on by long term pulmonary hypertension. Caused by COPD, chronic lung blood clots, cystic fibrosis

9

Cardiac Output

stroke volume X 1 minute (BPM) amount of blood circulated through the body in 1 minute-5-5.5 LPM

10

Stoke Volume

amount of blood pushed out of Left Ventricle in one beat-one stroke

11

Ejection Fraction & the EF test

100ml in a chamber(any) ejects 75ml ejection fraction is 75 is measured for determining CHF

12

Automaticity...

heart works automatically through electro conductivity

13

Starlings Law

the more something is able to contract the more forceful the contraction (stretching a rubber band more makes it fly further)

14

J-Wave aka...

Osbourne wave-hypothermia (google it now)

15

Pathological Q wave

previous Mi previous heart damage (google it now)

16

Delta Wave EKG

WPK-Wolf Parkinson White-QRS does not go straight up- has a steep slope on the way up the R wave (google it now)

17

Elevated/Peaked T-Wave & TX

Hyperkalemia-too much potassium.TX Calcium Chloride-500mg-1g IV/IO over 5-10 minutes (PRN every 10 min) Peds-20mg/KG(.2ml/kg) slow IVP

18

T-wave

represents re-polarization of the ventricles

19

Cardiac Tamponade defin & S/S

Protective sac of the heart (pericardium) if fluid builds up pessure chokes the heart while trying to beat. Becks Triad is
1.hypotension
2.JVD
3.muffled heart sounds.




20

Cardiac Tamponade caused by

Pericarditis-inflammation of the pericardium and trauma

21

Cardiac Tamponade TX

Peracardialcentisis- put a needle in the heart and drain the sac DEFINITIVE TX-out of our scope of practice

22

Pericarditis EKG

ST elevation in every lead-don't treat as an MI

23

Chest Pain MI #1 Sign

#1 CRUSHING/PRESSURE

24

Most common cause of PVC

Palpitation

25

Occasional PVC TX

02 NRB

26

More than 6 PVC minute TEST ?

02 NRB amiodarone (300/150 max) or Lidocaine 1-1.5 mg/kg 3mg/kg max for test best answer is lido or amio

27

Electro vs Drug Therapy which & when

Altered or poor signs of perfusion(low BP, CPD, shocky) straight to Synchronized cardioversion

28

Synchronized Cardioversion which Rhythms and when

is at the top of R-Wave for Perfusing SVT, V-TACH, Uncontrolled A-Fib that are altered or poor signs of perfusion

29

Procainamide & Dose

only 1 indication-pulsating V-TACHprovided that they have good signs and symptoms
Adult 100mg IV/IO over 5 minutes
Peds 15mg/kg IV/IO over 30-60 min
17mg/kg max

30

Procainamide Reasons to STOP

1. Reached Max Dose of 17mg/kg
2. Hypotensive b/c of drug then go to sync cardio 3. Rhythm converts-it worked
4. QRS widens by 50% print if widens STOP- we want QRS to NARROW

31

Verapamil is a ? Used for? & Dose

Calcium Channel blocker-uncontrolled A-Fib & A-Flutter 2.5-5 mg IV/IO second dose 5-10mg in 10 min max 30mg

32

Verapamil Absolute Contraindication

HYPOTENSION below 90mmHg systolic

33

Heart Sounds

S1- Closure of AV valves Tricuspid & Mitral
S2-Closure of Aortic & Pulmonary valves
S3-Cadence of Kentucky means CHF
S4-Cadence of Tennessee,increased atrial contraction
S3&4 +PAC's

34

Normal to Hear which heart sounds

S1 & S2

35

P-Wave is..

depolarization of Atrium

36

QRS is...

depolarization of Ventricles

37

T-Wave is...

re-polarization of everything

38

Refractory Period

heart is most succeptible to depolarization during refractory period

39

1 Big Red Box...2 big red box...3 big red box...

300-150-75-37.5

40

Small Box =Big BOx?

small box=.04sec, 5 small boxes=1 large box=.2 seconds 30 large boxes=6 second strip

41

You can get the rate on a 6 second strip by

Counting the complexes and multiplying by 10