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Flashcards in Cardiology Deck (360)
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1

Opening

Snap - MS
Click - MVP

2

Closure

S1
S2

3

Loud S1

MS
Short PR (WPW)
Tachycardia
Thyrotoxicosis

4

Soft S1

MR
Long PR
inc'd LVEDP

5

S2 inspiration

A2 - AV closess first
P2 - PV closes last -> physiologist split

6

S2 expiration

both valves close at same time

7

S2 split inc'd

closese earlier - MR, VSD
Closes later PS, pulm HTN (loud P2) RBBB

8

Fixed S2 split

ASD

9

paradoxical S2 split

AS, HTN, LBBB

10

S3

inc'd flow
chronic MR
CHF
TR, PDA
BENIGN IN KIDS
pregnancy

11

Inspiration

MORE BLOOD IN R HEART

12

S4

Decreased compliance
Acute MR
HOCM
LVH
AS
Ischemia

13

Pericardial friction rub

Superficial scratch sound best heard when pt upright leaning forward and deep breath in pericarditis

14

Pericardial knock

constrictive pericarditis - sharp early diastolic sound (early 3rd sound)

15

Physioligc during expiration

Single S2

16

HTN/AS/LBBB

Paradoxical S2 split

17

ASD

Fixed split

18

Calcified AS

Single S2 (soft A2)

19

HTN

Loud A2

20

Pulm HTN

Loud P2

21

Physiologist split

A2 before P2

22

Pulsus tardus

slowly rising pulse
AS

23

Pulsus bisferients

rapid upstroke - bifid/trifid
HCM

24

Pulsus alternans

one heart snd normal, one abn
severe HF
cardiac tamponade
SVC obstruction
Pulm obstruction

25

Hyperkinetic

High output state
PDA
Thyrotoxicosis

26

Hypokinetic

Low output states

27

Kusmal

deep breath more blood into R heart - taemponade - R septum bulges into LV, dec'd BP on inspiration, JVP bulges

28

Auscultation

R IInd IC space (Aortic Area)
AS
AI

Left II IC Space (Pulm area)
PS, PR, AI, PDA

LLSB (Tricuspid area)
TS, TR
ASD, VSD
HOCM

Apex (Mitral Area)
MS
MR
AR

29

Palpation

Left parasternal area
Hyperdynamic implse (inc'd RV volume (ASD or TR)
Sustained L parasternal heave - RVH, (MS, pHTN, PS)

Apical area
Hyperdynamic impulse
Inc'd LV vol (Hyprthyroid, Anemia, preimary MR, AR with nl EF, PDA VSD)
Susptained Apex lift/impulse
LVH (HTN, Dil CM)
IHD, AR with low EF
Bifid/trifid apical impulse - HOCM

30

AV Valve Holosystolic murmur

MR, MR, VSD