Cardiomyopathy to valvular disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiomyopathy to valvular disease Deck (32):
1

Cardiomyopathy is _____ (what kind of problem)
how is it divided

is a heart muscle disorder
there are primary and secondary forms

2

cardiomyopathy types

hypertrophic
dilated/congestive
restrictive

3

what is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
what happens
primary or secondary

primary
excessive hypertrophy of ventricle
thick IV septum

4

etiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

genetic (50% of cases) transmission is autosomal dominant
-idiopathic (50%)
-systolic fx is usually normal and therefore it can be asymptomatic (CO is normal)

5

from Fig 24-15 what can hypertrophic cardiomyopathy do to blood flow in heart

a thickened IV causes intermittent L ventricular outflow obstruction

6

mfts of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

-dyspnea, angina, syncope (fainting d/t lack of blood flow to brain), palpitations
sudden death?

7

tx of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

negative inotrope
(the IV is often so thck that drugs may not help. May use sx to thin IV septum)
a negative inotrope is a drug that dec myocardial activity eg beta blocker, calcium channel blocker)

8

Dilated/congestive cardiomyopathy

-cardiac enlargement especially ventricles
-weak contractions-> decreased ejection fraction (ejection fraction is expressed n percent and it describes the amount of the blood in the heart that is being pumped out with each beat?)
-alcohol abuse is implicated

9

restrictive cardiomyopathy

least common type
-very rigid V walls
-incomplete V filling-> dec CO
-usually leads to CHF

think its like the elastic band is now made of wire

10

electrical signal through heart

SA node->Av node->bundle of His->L and R bundle branches and L nterior fascicle for mitral

11

which part of heart is pacemaker

SA node

12

what type of cells are transmit the elctricity int he heart

specialized cardiac muscle cells

13

Arrythmias
-what are they
-what do they change/affect

-abnormal heart rate and or rhythm
-alters cardiac cycle (filling/emptying)
-CO and perfusion are affected

14

do arrythmias take place in diseased hearts only

no. can be in normal heart too

15

et of arrythmias

-heart defects (congenital)
-myocardial ischemia
-myocardial infarction
-drugs (particularly stimulants)
-fluid-electrolyte imbalances

16

atrial fibrillation vs flutter which is more problematic
what is worse than either of these

atrial fibrillation
worse=heart block
worst=ventricular fibrillation

17

atrial flutter

-regular, atrial tachycardia (~300BPM)
-regular, ventricular tachycardia (~150BPM)
-usually 2:1 ratio (A:V)

18

atrial fibrillation

-irreg, chaotic contractions (400-600BPM)
-irreg, rapid Ventricular rate (~80-180BPM it ould be the normal rate but will be irreg)

19

Heart block

(not the flow of blood)
-abnormal or no impulse conduction for atrium to ventricles

20

1st, 2nd, 3rd degree heart block

1st degree=delayed conduction, reg rhythms

2nd degree hert block=intermittent failure of conduction

3rd degree-no conduction, independent Atria rate & Ventricular rate (they are still contracting despite lack of rhythm)

21

Ventricular fibrillation

quivering, no contraction
can cause death in minutes
(neither filing nor empyting)

22

Tx of arrythmias

based on type
-drugs eg beta blockers and calcium channel blockers
-defibrillation-(apply electrical current to chest wall which terminates all electrical activity in heart then, stop shocking and wait for SA to resume pacemaking)
-pacemakers
-ablation (not always indicated

23

Valvular disease refers to which valves

the cardiac valves

24

valvular disease
what hapens and why?

(either the valve opens when it shouldnt or doesnt open adequately)

damaged valves->impeded flow or regurgitation
-aortic and mitral valves are more susceptible WHY?
(mitral valve must work hardest and L semilunar to push blood into systemic circuit.)

25

Et of valvular disease

-valve trauma
-degenerative change
-ischemic damage
-congenital defects

26

what is stenosis?

the abnormal narrowing of a passage in the body.

27

stenosis in r/t valvular disease

the valve will either have stenosis and be too narrow or it will be incompetent and not close well enough
-stenosis
-stiff valve, narrow orifice->impeded flow

28

incompetent valve

-distorted valves->improper closure->regurgitation

29

which valve is most commonly affected by stenosis or incompetence?

mitral

30

Tx of valvular disease

maintain/improve fx using drugs
-sx? (in many cases its nec. damaged valve is replaced)

31

how can hypertrophic cardiomyopathy be asymptomatic

systolic fx is usually normal

32

how are atrial flutter and fibrillation different other than the inc heart BPM

flutter has regular beat