Cardiopulmonary System and Response to Exercise Flashcards Preview

PTRS 825 Final Exam > Cardiopulmonary System and Response to Exercise > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiopulmonary System and Response to Exercise Deck (30)
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1

P Wave

Atrial depolarization

2

QRS Complex

Ventricular depolarization

3

T Wave

Ventricular repolarization

4

Cardiovascular Function

Deliver oxygen and nutrients
Remove CO2 and waste
Transport hormones
Maintenance of pH balance and clearing of kidneys
Prevention of CVD

5

Anaerobic Threshold

Rise in CO2 disproportionate to rise in OT - can't clear waste

6

Resting Respiratory Exchange Ratio

VCO2/VO2
>1 = anaerobic metabolism
1.05-1.09 = max effort
Increase with exercise as CO2 production > O2 consumption

7

Maximal Oxygen Consumption

Improves 10-30% with training
Greater gains in reconditioned individuals

8

VO2 Norms

Stroke - 12-15
Active 20 yo - 35-40
Athlete - 90-93

9

Cardiac Output

@ Rest - 5L/min
Exercise - 20/25L/min
Increases linearly with workload
Up to 50% max capacity due to increase in SV and HR, after 50% due to HR

10

Stroke Volume

Most important in determining VO2 max
Higher at fixed or submax workload with training

11

SV Adaptations

Increased wall thickness
Preload
Ability to squeeze

12

Ejection Fraction

60-70% - healthy

13

Karvonen

Training range % x (HR max - resting) + HR resting

14

HR Response to Exercise

Sedentary individuals decrease resting HR 1 bpm/wk
Recovery should drop 12-18 beats within 1st minute

15

Pulmonary Ventilation

Gas exchange from high to low pressure

16

Fick's Law

Amount of gas moves across tissue is proportional to area and inversely related to thickness

17

Hyperventilation

Increased ventilation increases pH

18

Ventilation

Matches energy metabolism during steady state by varying VO2 and VE

19

Respiratory Limitations to Performance

Respiratory muscles use > 15% of total oxygen during exercise (more resistance to fatigue)
Pulmonary ventilation rarely limiting factor due to max exercise

20

Respiratory Regulation of Acid-Base Balance

Excessive H+ impairs muscle contractility
Therefore, increases respiration allow more CO2 to be transported

21

AV O2 Difference

Difference between arterial and venous blood oxygen content
Resting - 5 mL/O2/100mL/dL
Exercise - 15 ML/O2/100mL/dL
Increased by greater SV

22

Blood Volume

Increase with endurance training
Increase due to increased plasma volume (correlated with SV and VO2 max)
High hematocrit (blood doping) - >48%

23

Blood Flow

Increases with training
Increased capillarization -> increased blood volume

24

Blood Pressure

Reflects intra-arterial pressure during systole and diastole
Systolic increases with exercise
Low at rest and submax exercise

25

Mean Arterial Pressure

Cardiac output x Total peripheral resistance

26

Nervous Control of Blood Pressure

Long-term - kidneys
Short-term - cardiovascular system
Cardiac and pulmonary stretch receptors

27

HR with Aging

Resting: little change/increase
Lower max HR
Increased LV mass/wall thickness -> ventricle gets smaller
High HR during submax

28

VO2 with Aging

Decreases (CO and SV)
Decreased BF to muscles

29

Metabolic with Aging

Decreased insulin sensitivity (inc blood sugar), HDL and increased cholesterol
Increased peripheral vascular resistance

30

Effect of Training with Aging

All CV can be improved but won't be as efficient