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Anatomy JC > Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (38):
1

What nerve crosses the lateral borders of the pericardium?

Phrenic nerve

2

What is the function of the epicardium on the surface of the heart>

To secrete pericardial fluid

3

What is cardiac tamponade

Where pressure around the heart builds due to the pericardial cavity filling with fluid which can prevent contraction

4

What is pericardiocentesis? How is the entry point for it indicated?

Where a needle is inserted via the infrasternal angle as indicated by the xiphoid process and drains fluid in the pericardial cavity

5

What manouvere is performed by surgeons allowing them to identify and isolate the great vessels of the heart for open heart surgery?

Transverse pericardial sinus

6

What groove of the heart does the right coronary artery lie in?

Coronary groove

7

What groove of the heart does the LAD artery lie in?

Anterior interventricular groove

8

What do all of the coronary veins drain into?

The coronary sinus

9

What are some of the features of the right atrium?

Opening for SVC and IVC
Opening for the coronary sinus
Oval fossa
Crista terminalis (smooth muscle ridge)

10

Describe the heart valves in terms of types of cusps

Pulmonary; semilunar with anterior right and left cusps

Aortic; semilunar with anterior right, left and posterior cusps

Tricuspid; leaflet, tendinous cords, papillary muscle, anterior, posterior and septal cusps

Mitral; leaflet, anterior and posterior cusps


11

Give some features of the interior left atrium

Openings for pulmonary veins

Remains of foramen ovale

12

Name the places to ausculate for the 4 valves?

Aortic; right 2nd intercostal sternal edge

Pulmonary; left 2nd intercostal sternal edge

Tricuspid; left 4th intercostal sternal edge

Mitral; apex beat 5th intercostal mid clavicular USUALLY

13

What valves make the 1st heart sound? Lub

Tricuspid and mitral closing

14

What valves make the second heart sound? Dub

Pulmonary and aortic closing

15

At what vertebral levels do the sympathetic nerves exit the spinal cord?

T1-L2/3

16

At what vertebral level are the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves exiting the spinal cord?

T1-T5

17

What cranial nerves are responsible for parasympathetic stimulation?

CN III occulomotor nerve

CN VII facial nerve

CN IX glossopharyngeal nerve

CN X vagus nerve

18

Define radiating central chest pain

Where pain is felt in the centre of patients chest and felt spreading to another location, commonly back, jaw, neck

19

What part of the brain is responsible for processing somatic sensations?

Postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe (sensory strip )

20

What part of the brain is responsible for contractions of skeletal muscle?

Precentral gyrus of frontal lobe (Motor strip)

21

What structure does the right vagus nerve cross in the mediastinum? Moving posterior or anterior to root of the lung?

The trachea and oesophagus

Posterior

22

What structure does the left vagus nerve cross in the mediastinum? Moving posterior or anterior to root of the lung?

Aorta

Posterior

23

Does the phrenic nerve pass anterior or posterior to the root of the lung on the left and right side?

Anterior, also lying lateral to the pericardium

24

Where does the thoracic duct lie?

The duck between two gooses

Between the azygous vein and the oesophagus

25

Describe visceral pain

Dull, aching, poorly localised

26

Describe somatic pain

Sharp localised

27

What are the common coronary vessels to be blocked

Right coronary artery
LAD
Circumflex
Left coronary artery

28

What are the commonly used grafts in coronary artery. Bypass grafting? (CABG)

Saphenous vein

Mammary artery (internal thoracic)

Radial artery

29

What is the blood supply to the nodes and bundle branches of the heart

Posterior interventricular artery

LAD/ anterior interventricular artery

30

What is the function of the left thoracic duct?

Carries lymph to left venous angle

31

Function of azygous vein/?

Carry venous blood from intercostal veins to SVC

32

What is the cisterna chyli

Swollen start of thoracic duct in the abdomen

33

What does the L. Reccurent laryngeal hook underneath?

Arch of aorta

34

What does the R. /Reccurent laryngeal hook underneath?

Left subclavian artery

35

What type of fibres pass through anterior rami

Sensory nerve fibres

36

What does the phrenic nerve supply?

•mediastinal parietal pleura
•fibrous pericardium
•diaphragmatic parietal pleura
•diaphragmatic parietal peritoneum

37

How can pain be referred from the diaphragm to the shoulder?

As the supraclavicular nerves also exit the spinal cord at level C3,4 similar to the phrenic nerve (C3,4,5) this can cause the brain to refer the pain to the more superficial structure

38

Does the right or left venous angle drain the majority of the lymph from the body (3/4 including left upper, and lower parts)

Theleft venous angle as supplied by the thoracic duct