Cardiovascular Anatomy Flashcards Preview

AP II Final Exam > Cardiovascular Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Anatomy Deck (35):
1

What are the functiions of blood? (5)

transporting oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissues

forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss

carrying cells and antibodies that fight infection

bringing waste products to the kidneys and liver, which filter and clean the blood

regulating body temperature

 

 

2

Where does blood arise from?

hemocytoblasts in: 

spongy bone marrow of femur, humerus, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, cranium

3

What is the plasma comprised of? (5)

  • Water 90%
  • Proteins:  albumin, antibiodies, clotting factors
  • Electrolytes: Na, K, Cl, Ca
  • Hormones
  • Nutrients & wastes: uric acid, nitrogen, creatinine

4

What type of blood labs do we take? (3)

CBC  complete blood count

BMP basic metabolic panel

Differential:  detailed WBC

5

What type of stem cell exists in the bone marrow?

Pluripotent 

Note: Which then can become a myeloid or a lymphoid stem cell.  

6

What are characteristics of erythrocytes? (4)

anucleate

are end products and do not reproduce

transport O2 and CO2 on Hb

comprise 45% of blood volume = Hct

7

What are characteristics of leukocytes? (3)

protect body against bacteria, viruses, toxins

diapedesis: WBC can leave capillaries, go into tissue (ie. inflammation)

have amoeboid motion

8

What does differential count (%) comprise of? 

 

granulocytes (-phil)

agranulocytes 

9

What are the types of granulocytes? (3)

Eosinophils-- red granules

Basophils-- blue granules, release histamine, heparin

Neutrophils (40-70%)-- non staining, produce bleach and hydrogen peroxide

10

What are the types of agranulocytes?

Lymphocytes (30%)-- T and B cells

Monocytes-- high counts in chronic infections

 

11

What do the monocytes turn into?

macrophages

dendritic cells produce antigen presenting cells

12

Thromobocytes, ie. platelets are NOT cells but rather cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocyte.  True or false?

True

13

What are some functions of the thrombocytes? 

Make platelet factor for clot formation

Release serotonin

Vasoconstriction

14

What are the characteristics of plasma? (4)

Yellow colored

55% of total blood volume

90% is water

10% is protein, electrolyte, nutrients, vitamins, waste, hormones, gases

15

Identify the layers of vasculature:

Q image thumb

  1. Tunica adventitia--connective tissue, contains vaso vasorum
  2. Tunica media-- elastin and smooth muscle (alpha receptors), thickest in arteries
  3. Tunica intima-- 1 cell layer thick

16

Where is the tunica adventitia thickest?

Where is the tunica media thickest?

in the veins

in the arteries

Note: Tunica intima is the only layer in capillaries.

17

The elastic vasculature is found mainly where?

The muscular vasculature is found mainly where?

Largest arteries like the aorta.

Medium arteries like the brachial, radial, and tibial.

18

What are characteristics of the arterioles? (2)

Tunica media is 2-3 cell layers thick.

They are the resistance vessels that play major role in distribution and regulation of BP.

19

In the venules, the tunica media is not present.  True or false?

false

May or may not be present.  If present, may be very thin.

20

What are capacitance vessels capable of holding a large volume of blood with little pressure change?

veins

Note: Veins are a reservoir of 60% of blood volume.

21

What is the order of systemic circulation?

Left heart

Aorta- arteries

Arterioles

Capillaries

Venules

IVC/SVC 

Right heart

22

What is the order of pulmonary circulation?

Right heart

Pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary arterioles

Pulmonary capillaries

Pulmonary venules

Pulmonary veins

Left heart

A image thumb
23

What is the circulation of the aorta? 

Ascending
Aortic arch
Descending aorta

Coronary arteries

Head, neck, upper limbs

Thorax, abdomen, lower limbs

A image thumb
24

Label

 

Q image thumb

A image thumb
25

What are the pulmonary capillaries' function? (3)

1. gas exchange

2. production and metabolism of biochemicals ie serotonin, norepinephirine

3. conversion of inactive to active biochemicals ie angiotensin I to Angio II by ACE

26

What are the sensory visceral afferents? 

pain from organs

stretch receptors from bladder distension, full stomach

27

What are the motor (visceral) efferents? (3)

smooth muscle-- GI, bronchioles, tunica media of vessels

cardiac myocytes

glands

28

Sympathetic motor division is what spinal region?

Parasympathetic motor division is what spinal region?

thoracolumbar: alpha, beta, epi, norepi, dopamine

craniosacral: ACh, muscarinic, nicotinic

29

What effects does sympathetic system have on vasculature? 

What effect does the parasympathetic system have?

alpha vasoconstriction of tunica media

beta vasodilation of skeletal muscle

Parasympathetic has no effect because doesn't innervate, but sumpathetic system is unopposed

30

What receptor causes vasoconstriction of the tunica media?

alpha

31

Alpha receptor is responsible for what neural controls?

Vasoconstriction: TM   
iris dilation
intestinal relaxation    
intestinal sphinctercontraction   
bladder sphincter contraction  

32

Beta receptors are responsible for what type of neural controls? 

cardioacceleration (b1): myocytes       
vasodilation (b2)  
intestinal relaxation   
uterus relaxation
bronchodilation (b2)

33

Activity of the receptors cause decrease in BP:

decrease in alpha

increase in beta

34

What other influences affect bp venous return? (4)

Breathing
Ventilator
Valsalva
Laparoscopic insufflation

35

Where is the vasomotor and cardiac center in the brain?

medulla