What are the functiions of blood? (5)
transporting oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissues
forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss
carrying cells and antibodies that fight infection
bringing waste products to the kidneys and liver, which filter and clean the blood
regulating body temperature
Where does blood arise from?
spongy bone marrow of femur, humerus, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, cranium
What is the plasma comprised of? (5)
Proteins: albumin, antibiodies, clotting factors
Electrolytes: Na, K, Cl, Ca
Nutrients & wastes: uric acid, nitrogen, creatinine
What type of blood labs do we take? (3)
CBC complete blood count
BMP basic metabolic panel
Differential: detailed WBC
What type of stem cell exists in the bone marrow?
Note: Which then can become a myeloid or a lymphoid stem cell.
What are characteristics of erythrocytes? (4)
are end products and do not reproduce
transport O2 and CO2 on Hb
comprise 45% of blood volume = Hct
What are characteristics of leukocytes? (3)
protect body against bacteria, viruses, toxins
diapedesis: WBC can leave capillaries, go into tissue (ie. inflammation)
have amoeboid motion
What does differential count (%) comprise of?
What are the types of granulocytes? (3)
Eosinophils-- red granules
Basophils-- blue granules, release histamine, heparin
Neutrophils (40-70%)-- non staining, produce bleach and hydrogen peroxide
What are the types of agranulocytes?
Lymphocytes (30%)-- T and B cells
Monocytes-- high counts in chronic infections
What do the monocytes turn into?
dendritic cells produce antigen presenting cells
Thromobocytes, ie. platelets are NOT cells but rather cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocyte. True or false?
What are some functions of the thrombocytes?
Make platelet factor for clot formation
What are the characteristics of plasma? (4)
55% of total blood volume
90% is water
10% is protein, electrolyte, nutrients, vitamins, waste, hormones, gases
Identify the layers of vasculature:
Tunica adventitia--connective tissue, contains vaso vasorum
Tunica media-- elastin and smooth muscle (alpha receptors), thickest in arteries
Tunica intima-- 1 cell layer thick
Where is the tunica adventitia thickest?
Where is the tunica media thickest?
in the veins
in the arteries
Note: Tunica intima is the only layer in capillaries.
The elastic vasculature is found mainly where?
The muscular vasculature is found mainly where?
Largest arteries like the aorta.
Medium arteries like the brachial, radial, and tibial.
What are characteristics of the arterioles? (2)
Tunica media is 2-3 cell layers thick.
They are the resistance vessels that play major role in distribution and regulation of BP.
In the venules, the tunica media is not present. True or false?
May or may not be present. If present, may be very thin.
What are capacitance vessels capable of holding a large volume of blood with little pressure change?
Note: Veins are a reservoir of 60% of blood volume.
What is the order of systemic circulation?
What is the order of pulmonary circulation?
What is the circulation of the aorta?
Head, neck, upper limbs
Thorax, abdomen, lower limbs
What are the pulmonary capillaries' function? (3)
1. gas exchange
2. production and metabolism of biochemicals ie serotonin, norepinephirine
3. conversion of inactive to active biochemicals ie angiotensin I to Angio II by ACE
What are the sensory visceral afferents?
pain from organs
stretch receptors from bladder distension, full stomach
What are the motor (visceral) efferents? (3)
smooth muscle-- GI, bronchioles, tunica media of vessels
Sympathetic motor division is what spinal region?
Parasympathetic motor division is what spinal region?
thoracolumbar: alpha, beta, epi, norepi, dopamine
craniosacral: ACh, muscarinic, nicotinic
What effects does sympathetic system have on vasculature?
What effect does the parasympathetic system have?
alpha vasoconstriction of tunica media
beta vasodilation of skeletal muscle
Parasympathetic has no effect because doesn't innervate, but sumpathetic system is unopposed
What receptor causes vasoconstriction of the tunica media?
Alpha receptor is responsible for what neural controls?
bladder sphincter contraction
Beta receptors are responsible for what type of neural controls?
cardioacceleration (b1): myocytes
Activity of the receptors cause decrease in BP:
decrease in alpha
increase in beta
What other influences affect bp venous return? (4)
Where is the vasomotor and cardiac center in the brain?