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AP II Final Exam > HTN > Flashcards

Flashcards in HTN Deck (21):
1

What is the equation for BP relating to Ohm's Law?

V = IR

BP = (Stroke volume * CO) * SVR

2

What are the 2 types of systemic HTN?

Essential HTN-- unknown cause

Secondary HTN-- definable cause

3

What is the BP range for pre-hypertension?

120-140 / 80-90

4

What is the BP for hypertension?

>= 140/90

5

What is the BP for Stage 1 hypertension?

140-160 / 90-100

6

What is moderate hypertension?

160 - 180 / 100 - 110

7

What is severe hypertension?

.= 180 / 110

8

What are the possible genetic issues causing HTN? (3)

Renal handling of Na

Abnormal Na transport across membranes

Abnormal ANS response to stress

9

What is the epidemiology of HTN? (4)

Age

Environment

Socioeconomic

Race

10

What percent of pts have essential HTN?

95%

11

What factors can cause HTN?

Increased CO due to abnormal neuronal activity

Blood vessel endothelial abnormalities

Dysfunctional nitric oxide receptors

Kidney is responsible for long term issues

Abnormal hormonal imbalances

Desensitized baroreceptors

Excessive leptin in obesity

 

 

12

What are endogenous causes of secondary HTN? (6)

Chronic renal disease

Coarctation of aorta

Pheochromocytoma

Primary aldosteronism

Cushing's disease

13

What medications can induce secondary HTN?

Glucocorticoids
Cyclosporine A (anti-rejection med)
Oral contraceptives
Sympathomimetics (OTC drugs)
Cocaine
Alcohol (chronic)
 

14

What happens if HTN is untreated? 

50% die of CAD

33% die of stroke

10-15% die of renal failure

15

Major cardiac effects of HTN include: (2)

increased afterload

accelerated atherosclerosis

16

What physiological effects occur with increased afterload?(5)

Increased LV wall tension 
LV hypertrophy
Diastolic dysfunction
Increased LV filling pressure
Pulmonary congestion


 

17

What are the 2 types of strokes?

Hemorrhagic

Atherothrombotic

18

Treatment of HTN can decrease the risk death by stroke by ____%.

50%

19

What is a HTN crisis?

Severe elevation in BP which usually results from acute hemodynamic changes superimposed on a chronic one.

20

What adverse effects does HTN crisis cause?

HTN encephalopathy--dizziness, headaches

Papilledema

Angina

Note: Immediate treatment is REQUIRED for a HTN crisis.

21

What is the treatment for HTN?

Diuretics are first line

Sympatholytics

Vasodilators

Renin-Angiotensin Antagonists