What is the equation for BP relating to Ohm's Law?
V = IR
BP = (Stroke volume * CO) * SVR
What are the 2 types of systemic HTN?
Essential HTN-- unknown cause
Secondary HTN-- definable cause
What is the BP range for pre-hypertension?
120-140 / 80-90
What is the BP for hypertension?
What is the BP for Stage 1 hypertension?
140-160 / 90-100
What is moderate hypertension?
160 - 180 / 100 - 110
What is severe hypertension?
.= 180 / 110
What are the possible genetic issues causing HTN? (3)
Renal handling of Na
Abnormal Na transport across membranes
Abnormal ANS response to stress
What is the epidemiology of HTN? (4)
What percent of pts have essential HTN?
What factors can cause HTN?
Increased CO due to abnormal neuronal activity
Blood vessel endothelial abnormalities
Dysfunctional nitric oxide receptors
Kidney is responsible for long term issues
Abnormal hormonal imbalances
Excessive leptin in obesity
What are endogenous causes of secondary HTN? (6)
Chronic renal disease
Coarctation of aorta
What medications can induce secondary HTN?
Cyclosporine A (anti-rejection med)
Sympathomimetics (OTC drugs)
What happens if HTN is untreated?
50% die of CAD
33% die of stroke
10-15% die of renal failure
Major cardiac effects of HTN include: (2)
What physiological effects occur with increased afterload?(5)
Increased LV wall tension
Increased LV filling pressure
What are the 2 types of strokes?
Treatment of HTN can decrease the risk death by stroke by ____%.
What is a HTN crisis?
Severe elevation in BP which usually results from acute hemodynamic changes superimposed on a chronic one.
What adverse effects does HTN crisis cause?
HTN encephalopathy--dizziness, headaches
Note: Immediate treatment is REQUIRED for a HTN crisis.
What is the treatment for HTN?
Diuretics are first line