Flashcards in Cardiovascular: Anatomy of Heart I L3 Deck (30):
What are the major components of the cardiovascular system?
Heart (Pump), Arteries (Supply), Capillaries (Exchange) and Veins (Drainage).
Why is the cardiovascular system crucial?
The cardiovascular system supplies nutrients, oxygen, water and hormones to all the cells, for thermoregulation and the removal of wastes.
The blood vascular system forms an uninterrupted _____ and is a _____ supply and ________ system.
Loop, Closed, Drainage.
The blood vascular system can be separated into 2 circuits, which are...
Pulmonary and Systemic Circuit.
What does the Pulmonary Circuit do?
Enables gas exchange with the external environment. It conveys blood from the heart to the lungs and operates at a relatively low pressure. (There is only a small distance to move blood and therefore lower resistance).
What does the Systemic Circuit do?
Provides rapid supply to the rest of the body. It conveys blood from the heart to all other tissues and operates at a high pressure. (Blood has to be transported long distances and therefore requires higher resistances).
What is the name of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to supply the tissues?
How many arteries are connected to each structure in the body?
Depends on how important the structure is, blood can be supplied by two separate arteries, providing a backup supply.
Because arteries are the only supply, and it is important that the supply is constant for survival of cells and tissues, how are they protected?
Major arteries are located deep so that they are less likely to be damaged.
True/False, Names of arteries change at major branches?
What type of blood vessel allows substances to transport between the circulatory system and the tissues of the body?
Name the three types of capillaries from least permeable to most permeable.
Continuous capillaries, Fenestrated capillaries, Sinusoidal capillaries.
Where does drainage occur? (3 ways)
Deep Veins, Superficial Veins, Lymphatics.
What is the size of the veins in relation to the size of the arteries?
Veins have at least twice the larger cross-sectional area than arteries, allowing flow of the same volume of blood under lower pressure and a slower speed.
Do Systemic Veins have valves?
Yes to ensure unidirectional blood flow.
Describe the shape, size and orientation of the heart.
The heart is about the size of a closed fist, and has the shape of a blunted cone, with its apex located inferior and its base located superior.
Explain how to find the heart's apex beat.
Can normally be felt in the 5th intercostal space (between the 5th and 6th ribs) in the left midclavicular line an imaginary vertical line crossing through the middle of the clavicle bone).
Where are the sources of deoxygenated blood that enter the right atrium?
Superior Vena Cava (Blood returning from the head, neck, and upper limbs), the Inferior Vena Cava (Blood returning from below the diaphragm) and the coronary sinus (blood returning from the heart).
Where are the sources of the oxygenated blood that enter the left atrium?
The left atrium receives blood from the lungs via the four pulmonary veins.
What is the interventricular septum?
A wall that separates the ventricles.
Which ventricle has a thicker wall and why?
The right ventricle only has a thickness of 0.5cm because it does not have to pump blood at high pressures over a great distance, while the left ventricle has a thickness of 1.5cm because it must pump blood at high pressure across the entire body.
What is the name of the muscles arising in the lower portion of each ventricle?
What cord-like tendons attach and prevent the valves from turning inside out when they are closed?
What valve separates the right atrium and right ventricle?
What valve separates the left atrium and the left ventricle?
Mitral Valve. (Think mitraL) L for left.
Name the heart wall layers and the sack layer from inner to outer.
Endocardium, Myocardium, Epicardium, Pericardium.
Describe the endocardium layer.
Contains squamous epithelium/Endothelium (layer of flat shape epithelium cells). This rests upon loose irregular fibrous connective tissue. It also contains small blood vessels. Special electricity-conducting fibres called the Purkinje fibres run just beneath the endocardium.
Describe the myocardium layer.
Contains the contractile muscle elements that allow the heart to pump blood around the body. Makes up the majority of the wall of the heart.
Describe the epicardium layer.
Some of the epicardium consists of the visceral serous pericardium. Remainder of the epicardium contains loose irregular fibrous connective tissue, large blood vessels and adipose tissue.